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GLOSSARY OF POETIC TERMS ACATALECTIC A term describing a line of verse which is metrically complete, i.e., not shortened by the omission of the ending syllable of the final foot. Acatalexis is the opposite of catalexis . ACCENT The rhythmically significant stress in the articulation of words, giving some syllables more relative prominence than others. In words of two or more syllables, one syllable is almost invariably stressed more strongly than the other syllables. In words of one syllable, the degree of stress normally depends on their grammatical function; nouns, verbs, and adjectives are usually given more stress than articles or prepositions. The words in how to describe target market in business plan line of poetry are usually arranged so the accents occur at regular intervals, with the meter defined by the placement of the accents within the foot. Accent should not be construed as emphasis. Sidelight: Two degrees of accent are natural to many multi-syllabic English words, designated as primary and secondary. Sidelight: When a syllable is accented, it tends to be raised in pitch and lengthened. Any or a combination of stress/pitch/length can be a metrical accent. Sidelight: A semantic shift in accent can alter meaning. In the statement, "give report bug outer worlds the book," for example, the meaning can be altered depending on whether the word "me" or the word "book," receives the more prominent stress. In metrical verse, the meter might help determine the poet's intent, but not always. Sidelight: In English, when the full accent falls on a vowel, as in PO-tion, that vowel is called a long vowel ; when it falls on an articulation or consonant, as in POR-tion, the preceding vowel is a short vowel. In the classical Greek and Latin quantitive verse, however, long and short vowels referred to duration, i.e., how long they were held in utterance. (See also Cadence, Ictus, Modulation, Rhythm, Sprung Rhythm, Wrenched Accent ) (Compare Caesura, Slack ) ACCENTUAL VERSE Verse in which the metrical system is based on the count or pattern of accented syllables, which establish the rhythm. The accents must be normal speech stresses rather than those suggested by the metrical pattern. The total number of syllables may vary. Sidelight: Most modern English poetry is a combination of accentual and syllabic verse. (Contrast Quantitive Verse ) ACEPHALY (ay-SEF-uh-lee) The omission of a syllable at the beginning of a line of verse. Such a line is described as acephalous. Sidelight: An acephalous line might be an intentional variance by the poet or a matter of the scanning interpretation. (Compare Catalectic ) (Contrast Anacrusis ) ACROSTIC POEM A poem in which certain letters of the lines, usually the first letters, form a word or message relating to the subject. Of ancient origin, examples of acrostic poems date back as far as the 4th century. Sidelight: Strictly speaking, an acrostic uses the initial letters of the lines to form the word or message, as in the argument to Jonson's Volpone. If the medial letters are used, it is a mesostich; if the final letters, a telestich. The term acrostic, however, is commonly used catholic university of ghana fiapre all three. When both the initial and final letters are used, it is called a double acrostic. (Compare Abecedarian Poem, Serpentine Verses ) ADONIC A verse consisting of a dactyl followed by a spondee or trochee. It is believed to be so named because of its use in songs during the Adoniaan ancient festival in honor of Adonis. Sidelight: The festival of Adonia was celebrated by women, who spent two days alternating between lamentations and feasting. (See also Sapphic Verse ) ADYNATON (uh-DYE-nuh-tahn) A type of hyperbole in which the exaggeration is magnified so greatly that it refers to an impossibility, e.g., "I'd walk a million miles for one of your smiles." Sidelight: An adynaton can also be expressed negatively: "Not all the water in Lake Superior could satisfy his thirst." AFFLATUS (uh-FLAY-tus) A creative inspiration, as that of a poet; a divine imparting of knowledge, thus universal studios singapore countdown bond university mailing address often called divine afflatus. ALCAIC VERSE A Greek lyrical meter, said to be invented by Alcaeus, a lyric poet from about 600 BC. Written in tetrameter, the greater Alcaic consists of a spondee or iamb followed by an iamb plus a long syllable and two dactyls. The lesser Alcaic, also in tetrameter, consists of two dactylic feet followed by two iambic feet. Sidelight: Though seldom appearing in English poetry, Alcaic verse was used by Tennyson in his ode, Milton. ALEXANDRINE The standard line in French poetry, consisting of twelve syllables with a caesura after the sixth syllable. There are accents on the sixth and last syllables of the line, and usually a secondary stress within each half-line (hemistich). The English Alexandrine is written in iambic hexameter, thus containing twelve syllables in six metrical feet. Sidelight: The Alexandrine probably received its name from an old French romance, Alexandre le Grandwritten about 1180, in which the measure was first used. Sidelight: The last line of the Spenserian stanza is an Alexandrine. (See Poulter's Measure ) ALLEGORY A figurative illustration of truths or generalizations about human conduct or experience in a narrative or description by the use of symbolic fictional figures and actions which the reader can interpret as a resemblance to the subject's properties and circumstances. Sidelight: Though similar to both a series of symbols and an extended metaphor, the meaning of an allegory is more direct and less subject to ambiguity than a symbol; an eye for an eye essay is distinguishable from an extended metaphor in that the literal equivalent of an allegory's figurative comparison is not usually expressed. Sidelight: The term, allegoresis, means the interpretation of a work on the part of a reader; since, by definition, the interpretation of an allegory is an essential factor, the two terms function together in a complementary fashion. Sidelight: Probably the best-known allegory in English literature is Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene. (Compare Aphorism, Apologue, Didactic Poetry, Epigram, Fable, Gnome, Proverb ) (See also Allusion, Metaphor, Personification ) ALLITERATION Also called head rhyme or initial rhymethe repetition of the initial sounds (usually consonants) of stressed syllables in neighboring words or at short intervals within a line or passage, usually at word beginnings, as in " w ild and w oolly," or the line from Shelley's "The Cloud": I bear l ight shade for the l eaves when l aid Sidelight: Alliteration has a gratifying effect on the sound, gives a reinforcement to stresses, and can also serve as a subtle connection or emphasis of key words in the line, but alliterated words should not "call attention" to themselves by strained usage. (See also Euphony, Modulation, Resonance ) (Compare Assonance, Consonance, Rhyme, Sigmatism ) ALLITERATIVE VERSE Poetry in which alliteration is a formal structural element in place of rhyme; it was prevalent in bogazici university summer school fees number of old literatures prior to the 14th century, including Anglo-Saxon. In starbucks corporation 2009 case study verse, the first half-line (hemistich) is united with the second half by alliterating stressed syllables; in the first half-line generally two (but sometimes three) syllables alliterate, while in the second half usually only one. Sometimes one alliterating sound is carried through successive lines: In a somer seson, whan softe was the sonne, I shoop me into shroudes as I a sheep were, In habite as an heremite unholy of werkes, Wente wide in this world wondres to here. -- The Vision of Piers Plowman, by William Bc government education grants resp, 1330?-1400? Sidelight: To facilitate maintaining the alliterative pattern, poets made frequent use of a specialized vocabulary, consisting of many synonymous words seldom encountered outside of alliterative verse. Sidelight: By the 14th century, rhyme and meter displaced alliteration as a formal element, although alliterative verse continued to be written into the 16th century and alliteration retains an important function as one of a poet's sound devices. ALLUSION An implied or indirect reference to something assumed to be known, such as a historical event or personage, a well-known quotation from literature, or a famous work of art, such as Keats' allusion to Titian's painting of Bacchus in "Ode to a Nightingale." Sidelight: An allusion can be used by the poet as a means chinese restaurants in state college pa imagery, since, like a symbol, it can suggest ideas by connotation. Like allegories and parodies, its effectiveness depends upon fly air aviation academy reviews reader's acquaintance with the reference alluded to. AMBIGUITY Applied to words and expressions, the state of being doubtful or indistinct in meaning or capable of being understood in more than one way, in the context in which it is used. Sidelight: Ambiguity can result from careless or evasive choice of words which bewilder the reader, but its deliberate use is often intended to unify the different interpretations into an expanded enrichment of the meaning of the original expression. AMPHIBRACH (AM-fuh-brak) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of a long or accented syllable between two short or unaccented syllables, as con-DI-tion or in-FECT-ed. AMPHIGOURI A verse composition which, while apparently coherent, contains no sense or meaning, as in Nephelidiaa poem written by A. C. Swinburne as a parody of his own alliterative-predominant style, which begins: From the depth of the dreamy decline of the dawn through a notable nimbus of nebulous noonshine, Pallid and pink as the palm of the flag-flower that flickers with fear of the flies as they float, (See also Macaronic Verse, Nonsense Poetry ) ANACHRONISM (uh-NAK-ruh-nizm) The placement of an event, person, or thing out of its proper chronological relationship, sometimes unintentional, but often deliberate as an exercise of poetic license. Sidelight: Anachronisms most frequently appear in imaginative portrayals with historical settings, such as a clock in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, and a reference to billiards in Antony and Cleopatra . ANACLASIS In classical poetry, the exchange of place between short and long syllables in Ionic feet to alter the rhythm. ANACREONTIC (uh-nah-kree-AHN-tik) A term describing odes written in the style of the Greek poet, Anacreon, convivial in tone or theme, relating to the praise of love and wine, as in Abraham Cowley's Anacreontiques. Sidelight: Francis Scott Key's 1814 poem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," was set to the tune of a popular song of the day, "To Anacreon in Heaven," composed by John Stafford Smith as a drinking song every child has the right to an education London's Anacreontic Society. In 1931 it was officially adopted by the U.S. Congress as the national anthem. ANACRUSIS (an-a-KROO-sis) One or more unaccented syllables at the beginning of a line of verse that are regarded as preliminary to and not part of the metrical pattern. ANADIPLOSIS (an-uh-duh-PLOH-sus) Also called epanadiplosis, the repetition of a prominent (usually the final) word of a phrase, clause, line, or stanza at the beginning of the next, often with extended or altered meaning, as in: "his hands were folded -- folded in prayer," or Keats' repetition of the word, "forlorn," linking the seventh and eighth stanzas of "Ode to a Nightingale." ANAGOGE or ANAGOGY (AN-uh-go-jee) The spiritual or mystical interpretation of a word or passage beyond the literal, allegorical, or moral sense. ANALECTS or ANALECTA Miscellaneous extracts collected from the works of authors. ANALOGY An agreement or similarity in some particulars between things otherwise different; sleep and deathfor example, are analogous in that they both share a lack of animation and a recumbent posture. Sidelight: Prevalent in literature, the use of an analogy carries the inference that if things agree in some respects, it's likely that they will agree in others. (Compare Simile, Symbol ) ANAPEST, ANAPESTIC A metrical foot with two short or unaccented syllables followed by a long or accented syllable, as in inter-VENE or for best tablet for kids homework WHILE. William Cowper's "Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk," is a poem in which anapestic feet are predominately used, as in the opening line: I am MON | -arch of ALL | I sur- VEYSidelight: In English poetry, with the exception of limericks, anapestic verse is seldom used for whole poems, but can asbestos worker course exam be highly effective as a variation. (See also Meter, Rhythm ) ANAPHORA (uh-NAF-or-uh) Also called epanaphora, the repetition of the same word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or lines for rhetorical or poetic effect, as in Lincoln's "we cannot dedicate- we cannot consecrate-we cannot hallow this ground" or from Fitzgerald's The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám : Sans Wine, sans Song, sans Singer, and--sans End! ANASTROPHE (uh-NAS-truh-fee) A type of hyperbaton involving the inversion of the natural or usual syntactical order of a pair of words for rhetorical or poetic effect, as "hillocks green" for "green hillocks," or "high triumphs hold" for "hold high triumphs" in Milton's "L'Allegro," or from the same poem: Meadows trimwith daisies piedShallow brooks, and rivers wide ; (Compare Antistrophe, Chiasmus, Hypallage ) ANTANACLASIS ( an-tuh-NAK-luh-sis) A figure of speech in which the same word is repeated in a different sense within a clause or line, e.g., "while we live, let us live." Sidelight: Since the play on senses can be used to create homonymous puns, antanaclasis is related to paronomasia. (See also Epanalepsis, Epizeuxis, Ploce, Polyptoton ) ANTHOLOGY A collection of selected literary, artistic, or musical works or parts of works. ANTIBACCHIUS (AN-ti-ba-KEE-us) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables followed by a short syllable. ANTICLIMAX The intentional use of elevated language unicaf university ranking in the world describe the trivial or commonplace, or a sudden transition from a significant thought to a trivial one in order to achieve a humorous or satiric effect, as in Pope's The Rape of the Lock : Here thou, great Anna! whom three realms obey, Dost sometimes counsel take -- and sometimes tea. An anticlimax also occurs in a series in which the ideas or events ascend toward a climactic conclusion but terminate instead in a thought of lesser importance. Bathos is an anticlimax which is unintentional. ANTIPHRASIS (an-TIF-ruh-sus) The ironic or humorous use of words in a sense not in accord with their literal meaning, as "a giant of three feet four inches." ANTISPAST (AN-ti-spast) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables between two short syllables. ANTISTROPHE (an-TIS-troh-fee) The second division in the triadic structure of Pindaric verse, corresponding metrically to the strophe; also, the stanza following or alternating with and responding to the strophe in ancient lyric poetry; also, in rhetoric, the reversal of terms mutually dependent on each other, as from "the captain of the crew" to "the crew of the captain." ANTITHESIS A figure of speech in which a thought is balanced with a contrasting thought in parallel arrangements of words and phrases, such as, "he promised wealth and provided poverty," or "it was the best of times, it was the worst of times, " or from Pope's An Cima management case study pre seen august 2019 to Dr. Arbuthnot : Willing to wound, and yet afraid to strike, Also, an antithesis is the second of two contrasting or opposing constituents, following the thesis. ANTONOMASIA (an-tuh-no-MAY-zhuh) The use of a name, epithet, or title in place of a proper name, as Bard for Shakespeare. ANTONYM One of two or more words that have opposite meanings. APHAERESIS or APHERESIS (uh-FEHR-uh-sus) A type of elision in which a letter or syllable is omitted at the beginning of a word, as 'twas for it was. APHESIS (AFF-uh-sus) A form of aphaeresis in which the syllable omitted is short and unaccented, as in 'round for around. APHORISM A brief statement containing an important truth or fundamental principle. APOCOPE (uh-PAH-kuh-pee) A type of elision in which a letter or syllable is omitted at the end of a word, as in morn for morning. APOLOGUE An allegorical narrative such as a fable, usually intended to convey a moral or a useful truth. APOSIOPESIS (ap-uh-sy-uh-PEE-sis) Stopping short of a complete thought for effect, thus calling attention to it, usually by a sudden breaking off, as "he acted like--but I pretended not to notice," leaving the unsaid portion to the reader's imagination. APOSTROPHE (uh-PAHS-truh-fee) A figure of speech in which an address is made to an absent or deceased person or a personified thing rhetorically, as in William Cowper's "Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk": O solitude! Where are the charms That sages have seen in thy face? An apostrophe is also a punctuation mark used to indicate the omission of letter(s) in bond university mailing address elision. Sidelight: When the poet addresses a muse or a god for inspiration, it is called an invocation. (Compare Prosopopeia ) ARCADIA A region or scene characterized by idyllic quiet and simplicity, often chosen as a setting for pastoral poetry, from Arcadiaa picturesque region in ancient Greece. ARCHAISM (AHR-kee-izm) The intentional use of a word or expression no longer in general use, for example, thou mayst is an archaism meaning you may. Archaisms can evoke the sense of a bygone era. Sidelight: Spenser's The Faerie Queene contains a number of archaisms. Syntactic inversions such as the hyperbaton can also also provide an archaic effect. ARGUMENT The subject matter or central theme of a work of literature or a summary of the work, often used as a bosch pbh universal exclusive to a drama, epic, or narrative, as in Jonson's Volpone . ARS POETICA A treatise by the Roman poet, Horace (65BC-8BC), setting forth principles of poetic composition. The term is also applied to other authoritative works dealing with the art of poetry. ARSIS The accented part of a poetic foot; the point where an ictus is put. Sidelight: In musical terminology, the arsis is the upbeat, the unaccented part of a measure; due to an early confusion which was later recognized but never reversed, the meaning of the term is the opposite when used in reference to the poetic foot. (Contrast Thesis ) ASSONANCE The relatively close juxtaposition of the same or similar vowel sounds, but with different end consonants in a line or passage, thus a vowel rhyme, as in the words, date and fade. Sidelight: The effective use of internal assonantal sounds is displayed throughout Byron's "She Walks in Beauty." (See also Euphony, Near Rhyme, Resonance, Sound Devices ) (Compare Alliteration, Consonance, Modulation, Rhyme ) ASYNDETON (uh-SIN-duh-tahn) The omission of conjunctions that ordinarily join coordinate words and phrases, as in "see no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil." AUBADE (OH-bahd) A song or poem with a motif of greeting the dawn, often involving the parting of lovers, or a call for a beloved to arise, as in Shakespeare's "Song," from Cymbeline. Sidelight: The dawn song is also known as an alba (Provençal), aube (Old French), and tagalied (German). (Compare Serenade ) AVANT-GARDE The innovating artists or writers who promote the use of new or experimental concepts or techniques. (See Imagism, Impressionism, Objectivism, Realism, Symbolism ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ A poet without love were a physical and metaphysical impossibility. Look, then, into thine heart, and write! ---Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. B BACCHIUS ( ba-KEE-us) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of a short syllable followed by two long syllables. BALLAD A short narrative bond university mailing address with stanzas of two or four lines and usually a refrain. The story of a ballad can originate from a wide range of subject matter but frequently deals with folk-lore or popular legends. The plot is the dominant element, dealing with a single crucial episode, narrated impersonally, with frequent use of repetition. They are eureka math lesson 5 homework 3.3 in straight-forward verse, seldom with detail, but always with graphic simplicity and force. Most ballads are suitable for singing and, while sometimes varied in practice, are generally written in ballad meteri.e., alternating lines of iambic tetrameter and iambic trimeter, with the last words of the second and fourth lines rhyming, an xbyb rhyme scheme. Sidelight: Many old-time ballads were written and performed by minstrels attached to noblemen's courts. Folk ballads are of unknown origin and are usually lacking in artistic finish. Meant to be sung, but often studied as poetry, the texts are independent of the melodies, which are often used for a number of different ballads. Because they are handed down by oral tradition, folk ballads are subject to variations and continual change. Other types of ballads include those transferred from rural to urban settings, and literary ballads, combining the natures of epic and lyric poetry, which are written by known authors, often in the style and form of the folk ballad, such as Keats' "La Belle Dame sans Merci" or Scott's "Jock o' Hazeldean." (See also Broadside Ballad, Lay, Tragedy ) (Compare Chanson de Geste, Common Measure, Epopee, Epos, Heroic Quatrain ) BALLADE (ba-LAHD) Frequently represented in French poetry, a fixed form consisting of three seven or eight-line stanzas using no more than three recurrent rhymes, with an identical refrain after each stanza and a closing envoi repeating the rhymes of the last four lines of the stanza. A variation containing six stanzas is called a double ballade. Sidelight: The ballade was prominent in French literature from the 14th to the 16th century and was favored by bosphorus university tuition fees poets, including Francois Villon, for example, in poems such as "Des Dames du Temps Jadis." In the frankland building university of birmingham century it was popular with poets like Verlaine and Baudelaire. In English literature, Chaucer wrote ballades and some late-nineteenth century English poets also used the form. (Compare Chant Royale ) BARD An ancient composer, singer or declaimer of epic verse, celebrating the deeds of gods and heroes. Sidelight: Today the term is popularly applied to poets of significant repute as a title of honor, with William Shakespeare being known as "The Bard of Avon" and Robert Burns as "The Bard of Ayrshire." (See also Metrist, Poet, Sonneteer, Versifier, Wordsmith ) (Compare Minstrel, Troubadour ) BAROQUE (buh-ROHK) An elaborate, extravagantly complex, sometimes grotesque, style of artistic expression prevalent in the late 16th to early 18th centuries. The baroque influence on poetry was expressed by Euphuism in England, Marinism in Italy, and Gongorism in Spain. BATHOS An unintentional shift from the sublime to the ridiculous which can result from the eureka math lesson 5 homework 3.3 of overly elevated language to describe trivial subject matter, or from an exaggerated attempt at pathos which misfires to the point of being ludicrous. Bathos can be viewed as an unintentional anticlimax. BINARY METER A meter which has two syllables per foot, as in iambic, trochaic, pyrrhic, and spondaic meters. Binary meters are sometimes referred to as duple or double meters. BLANK VERSE Poetry written without rhymes, but which retains a set metrical pattern, usually iambic pentameter (five iambic feet per line) in English verse. Since it is a very flexible form, the writer not being hampered in the expression of thought or syntactic structure by the need to rhyme, it is used extensively in narrative and dramatic poetry. In lyric poetry, blank verse is adaptable to lengthy descriptive and meditative poems. An example of blank verse is found in the well-known lines from Act 4, Scene 1 of Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice : The qua | lity | of mer | cy is | not strain'd, It drop | peth as | the gen | tle rain | from heaven Upon | the place | beneath; | it is | twice blest: It bles | seth him | that gives | and him | that takes; Sidelight: Blank verse and free verse are often misunderstood or confused. A good way to remember the difference is to think of the word blank as meaning that the ends of the lines where rhymes would normally appear are "blank," i.e., devoid of rhyme; the free in free verse refers to the freedom from fixed patterns lut university world ranking traditional versification. (See also Verse Paragraph ) BOUTS-RIMES (boo-REEM) An 18th century parlor game in which a list of rhyming words was drawn up and handed to the players, who had to make a poem from the list keeping the rhymes in their original order. BROADSIDE BALLAD A ballad written in doggerel, printed on a single sheet of paper and sold for a penny or two on English street corners in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. The name of the tune to which they were to be sung was indicated on the sheet. The subject matter of broadside ballads covered a wide range of current, historical, or simply curious events and also extended to moral exhortations and religious propaganda. Sidelight: The rogue, Autolycus, in Shakespeare's The Winter's Taleis a peddler whose wares include broadside ballads. BROKEN RHYME Also called split rhyme, a rhyme produced by dividing a word at the line break to make a rhyme with the end word of another line. In Hopkins' "The Windhover," for example, he divided king dom at the end of the first line to rhyme with the word wing ending the fourth line. BUCOLIC Derived from the Greek word for herdsman, an ancient term for a poem dealing with a pastoral subject. BURDEN The central topic or principle idea, often repeated in a refrain. BURLESQUE A work which is intended to ridicule by the use of grotesque exaggeration or by the treatment of a trifling subject with the gravity due a matter of great importance. (See also Hudibrastic Verse, Lampoon, Mock Epic, Parody, Pasquinade, Satire ) (Compare Antiphrasis, Irony, Purple Patch ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ 'T is the heart's current lends the cup its glow, Whate'er the fountain whence the draught may flow. ---Oliver Wendell Holmes. Great thoughts come from the heart. ---Marquis of Vauvenargues C CACOPHONY (cack-AH-fuh-nee or cack-AW-fuh-nee) Discordant sounds in the jarring juxtaposition of harsh letters or syllables which are grating to the ear, usually inadvertent, but sometimes deliberately used in poetry for effect. Sidelight: Sound devices are important to poetry. To create sounds appropriate to the content, the poet may sometimes prefer to achieve a cacophonous effect instead of the more commonly sought-for euphony. The use of words with the consonants b, 2016 state of nature report and p, to cite one example, produce harsher sounds than the soft f and v or the liquid l, m and n. (See also Dissonance ) (Contrast Euphony ) CADENCE The progressive rhythmical pattern in lines of verse; also, the natural tone or modulation of the voice determined by the alternation of accented or unaccented syllables. Sidelight: Cadence differs from meter in that it is not necessarily regular, but rather a more flexible concept of rhythm such as is characteristic of free verse and prose poetry. (See also Accent, Ictus, Sprung Rhythm, Stress ) (Compare Caesura ) CAESURA (siz-YUR-uh) A rhythmic break or pause in the flow of sound which is commonly introduced in about the middle of a line of verse, but may be varied for different effects. Usually placed between syllables rhythmically connected in order to aid the recital as well as to convey the meaning more clearly, it is a pause dictated by the sense of the content or by natural speech patterns, rather than by metrics. It may coincide with conventional punctuation marks, but not necessarily. A caesura within a line is indicated in scansion by the parallel symbol ( || ), as in the first line of Emily Dickinson's "I'm Nobody! Who Are You?": I'm no | body! || Who are | you? Sidelight: As a grammatical, rhythmic, and dramatic device, as well as an effective means of avoiding monotony, the caesura is a subtle but effective weapon in the skilled poet's arsenal. Sidelight: Since caesura and pause are often used interchangeably, it is better to use metrical pause for the type of "rest" which compensates for the omission of a syllable. Sidelight: A caesura occurring at the end of a line is not marked in the scanning process. Sidelight: The classical caesura was a break caused by the ending of a word within a foot. (See Diaeresis ) (See also Alexandrine, Hemistich ) (Compare Accent, Cadence, Rhythm ) CANON In a literary sense, the authoritative works of a particular writer; also, an accepted list of works perceived to represent a cultural, ideological, historical, or biblical grouping. Sidelight: Other literary groupings or collections include sonnet sequences, lyric sequences, cycles, companion poems, and anthologies. CANTO A major division of an extended narrative poem, such as an epic, as distinguished from shorter divisions like stanzas. CANZONE (kan-ZO-nee) An Italian lyric poem of varying stanzaic length, usually written in a mixture of hendecasyllables and heptasyllables with a concluding short stanza or envoi. Sidelight: The word "canzone" is derived from the Latin cantio (a song) and normally embraced subjects like love, heroic courage, or moral virtue. Milton's pastoral elegy, Lycidas, is an example in English poetry of a structure similar to the canzone. (Compare Ghazal, Melic Verse, Ode, Romance, Society Verse ) CARPE DIEM (KAHR-peh DEE-em) Latin for "seize the day," a common motif in lyric verse throughout the history of poetry, with the emphasis on making the most of current pleasures because life is short and time is flying, as in Robert Herrick's, "To the Virgins" or Edward Fitzgerald's The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám . CATACHRESIS (kata-KREE-sis) Misuse or abuse of words; the use of the wrong word for the context, as atone for repent, ingenuous for ingenious, bond university mailing address a forced trope in which a word is used too far removed from its true meaning, as "melancholy table" or Milton's "blind mouth" in Lycidas . CATALECTIC, CATALEXIS A term applied to a line of verse which is metrically incomplete due to the omission of one or two of the ending unaccented syllables of the final foot. Sidelight: In versification, poets sometimes use catalexis in lines of trochaic and dactylic verse to achieve a final accented syllable for a strong close or a rhyme, as bibliographic essay example apa William Blake in the poem, "Tyger! Tyger!" (Compare Acatalectic, Acephaly, Hypercatalectic ) CATALOG VERSE A poem comprised of a list of persons, places, things, or abstract ideas which share a common denominator. An ancient form, it was originally a type of didactic poetry. CATAPHORA The use of a grammatical substitute (like a pronoun) which has the same reference as the next word or phrase, as "before him, John saw a sea of smiling faces." CENTO Poetry iftm especialização em educação profissional e tecnológica inclusiva up of lines borrowed from a combination of established authors, usually resulting in a change in meaning and a humorous effect. CHAIN RHYME Also called interlocking rhyme, a rhyme scheme in which a rhyme university of queensland to brisbane airport a line of one stanza is used as a link to a rhyme in the next stanza, as in the aba bcb cdc, etc. of terza rima or the aaab cccb of "La Tour Eiffel." Sidelight: Another type of chain rhyme, which is usually referred as rime enchainée, links consecutive lines, with the last word of one line rhyming with the first word of the following lone star college summer 2020. (Compare Anadiplosis, Envelope Rhyme ) CHAIN VERSE Similar to chain rhyme, but links words, phrases, or lines (instead of rhyme) by repeating them in succeeding stanzas, as in the pantoum, but there are many variations. CHANSON DE GESTE (shan-SAWN duh ZHEST)) Literally, a song short essay on nature heroic deeds, it refers to a class of Old French epic poems of the Middle Ages, such as the Chanson de Roland, believed to have been written by the Norman poet, Turold. CHANT ROYALE An elaborate fixed form of ballade in Old French poetry, consisting of five stanzas of eleven lines with a refrain at the end of each stanza, rhyming ababccddedE and an envoi of five lines rhyming ddedE. Sidelight: The chant royale was originally used by 12th century troubadours and trouveres. Its 60-line length provided increased range for elaboration of the subject matter, which often dealt with satirical observations as well as elevated topics. CHAPBOOK A small book or pamphlet containing ballads, poems, popular tales or tracts, etc. CHIASMUS (kye-AZ-mus) An inverted parallelism; the reversal of the order of corresponding words or phrases (with or without exact repetition) in successive clauses which are usually parallel in syntax, as in Pope's "a fop their passion, but their prize a sot ," or Goldsmith's " to stop too 2008 academy of country music awards, and too faint to go. " Sidelight: While the term, chiasmus, is usually used in reference to syntax and word order, it also includes the repetition in reverse of any element of a poem, including sound patterns. Sidelight: An antimetabole (an-tye-muh-TAB-uh-lee) is a type of chiasmus in which the words reversed involve a repetition of the same words, as "do not live to eat, but eat to live, " or Shakespeare's " Remember March, the ides of March remember. " The distinction is not generally observed, however. (See also Anastrophe, Hypallage ) (Compare Envelope, Palindrome ) CHOREE (koh-REE) A rare form of trocheealso written as choreus . CHORIAMB In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of four syllables, the first two forming a trochee and the second two an iambusas in BOT-tom- | less PIT or RO-ses | are RED. CINQUAIN (sing-KANE) A five-line stanza of syllabic verse, the successive lines containing two, four, six, eight and two syllables. The cinquain, based on the Japanese haikuwas an innovation of the American university of guelph library jobs, Adelaide Crapsey. CLASSICISM The adherence to the influence of internet on indian youth essay standards that are universally valid and enduring. CLERIHEW (KLEHR-ih-hyew) A comic light verse, two couplets pace university essay length, rhyming aabbusually dealing with a person mentioned in the initial rhyme. It was named for its originator, Edmund Clerihew Bentley, an English writer, who wrote the following example at age sixteen: Sir Humphrey Davy Detested gravy. He lived in the odium Of having discovered sodium. CLIMAX Rhetorically, a series of words, phrases, or sentences arranged in a continuously ascending order of intensity. If the ascending order is not maintained, an anticlimax or bathos results. University of maryland graduate school tuition The term is usually applied to the point of supreme interest in a series of thoughts or events, often the turning point of a play or narrative. CLOSED COUPLET A couplet in which the sense and syntax is self-contained within its two lines, as opposed to an open couplet. CLOSE RHYME A rhyme of two contiguous or close words, such as in the idiomatic expressions, "true blue" or "fair and square." Sidelight: Close rhymes are a distinguishing characteristic of echo verse. (Compare Ricochet Words ) CLOSET DRAMA A literary work written in the form of a drama, but intended by the author only for reading, not for performance in the theater. CLOSURE The effect of finality, balance, and completeness, which leaves the reader with a sense of fulfilled expectations. Though the term is sometimes employed to describe the effects of individual repetitive elements, such as rhyme, metrical patterns, parallelism, refrains, and stanzas, its most significant application is in reference to the concluding portion of the entire poem. COMMON MEASURE A meter consisting chiefly of seven iambic feet arranged in rhymed pairs, thus a line with four accents followed by a line with three accents, usually in a 4-line stanza. It is also called common meter. Sidelight: A meter of 4-line stanzas of tetrameter verse is called a long meter (L.M.). A meter agha khan medical college merit list 2016 4-line stanzas in which the first, second, and fourth lines are trimeter and the third tetrameter is called a short meter (S.M.). The meter of 8-line stanzas of which the first four lines are tetrameter and the last four are trimeter is called hallelujah meter (H.M.). Sidelight: While essentially the same as ballad meter, common measure is more regularly iambic. COMPANION POEM A poem that is associated with another poem, which it complements. CONCEIT An elaborate metaphor, artificially strained or far-fetched, in which the subject is compared with a simpler analogue usually chosen from nature or a familiar context. Especially associated with intense emotional or spiritual feelings, they sometimes extend through the entire length of a poem. An example of a conceit is Sir Thomas Wyatt's "My Galley," an adaptation of Petrarch's Sonnet 159. Sidelight: The term is derived from concetto consulting case studies pdf, Italian for "concept." Most modern conceits are written in a more condensed form. (See also Euphuism, Gongorism, Marinism, Melic Verse, Metaphysical ) CONCRETE POETRY Poetry which forms a structurally original visual shape, preferably abstract, through the use of reduced language, fragmented letters, symbols, and other typographical variations to create an extreme graphic impact on the reader's attention. The essence of concrete poetry lies in its appearance on the page rather than in the written text; it is intended to be perceived as a visual whole and often cannot be effective when read aloud. CONNOTATION The suggestion of a meaning by a word beyond what it explicitly denotes or describes. The word, home, for example, means bond university mailing address place where one lives, but by connotation, also suggests security, family, love and comfort. Sidelight: Sometimes one of the connotations of a word gains enough widespread acceptance to become a denotation. (See also Allusion, Symbol ) CONSONANCE The close repetition of the same end consonants of stressed syllables with differing vowel sounds, such as boat and nightor the words drunk and milk in the final line of My last duchess essay pdf "Kubla Khan." Sidelight: Consonance most often occurs within a line. When used at line medical college skin specialist in place of rhyme, as in the words, cool and soul, in the third stanza of Emily Dickinson's "He Fumbles at your Spirit," it is sometimes referred to as consonantal rhyme to differentiate it from perfect rhyme and other types of near ma english open university india. Sidelight: In a more general sense, consonance also refers to a pleasing combination of sounds; sounds in agreement with tone. (See also Euphony, Modulation, Resonance, Sound Devices ) (Compare Alliteration, Assonance, Rhyme ) CONTENT The substance of a poem; apply texas essay topic c impressions, facts and ideas it contains--the "what-is-being-said." CONVENTIONS In a literary sense, established "codes" of basic principles and procedures for types of works that are recurrent in literature. The prevailing conventions of their time strongly influence writers to select content, forms, style, diction, etc., which are acceptable to the cultural expectations of the public. Sidelight: A knowledge of conventions, particularly from a historical aspect, aids the reader in the understanding, interpretation, and appreciation of literary works, particularly poems following the classical pastoral and epic conventions. Sidelight: Conventions can change over time. Their very existence fosters the emergence of originality and bamgboye v university of ilorin as a comparative measure and contrast to new concepts. CONVERSATION POEM A poem whose light, colloquial treatment of a serious subject is intended education on demand esr resemble informal conversation. Easy essay on quaid e azam to the dramatic monologue, the term originates from Coleridge's subtitle for his poem, "The Nightingale." COUPLET Two successive lines of poetry, usually of equal length and rhythmic correspondence, with end-words that rhyme. The couplet, for practical purposes, is the shortest stanza form, but is frequently joined with other couplets to form a poem with no stanzaic divisions, as in Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess." Sidelight: If the couplet is written in higher education in india essay pdf pentameter, it is called a heroic couplet. (See also Closed Couplet. Open Couplet, Distich, Elegiac ) COURTLY LOVE A late medieval idealized convention establishing a code for the conduct of amorous affairs of ladies and their lovers. Expressed and spread by the minnesingers and troubadoursit became associated with the literary concept of love until the 19th century. CRAMBO A game in which one player gives a word or line of verse to be matched in rhyme by the other players. CRETIC Used in classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of a short syllable between two long syllables, as in THIR-ty-NINE. Sidelight: Another name for the cretic foot is amphimacer. CRITICASTER An inferior or petty critic. CROSS RHYME The rhyme scheme of abab, also called alternate rhyme, in which the end words steven universe lion plush toy alternating lines rhyme with each other, i.e., the rhymes cross intervening lines. Sidelight: Cross rhyming derives from long-line verse such as hexameter in which two lines have caesural words rhymed together and end words rhymed together, as in Swinburne's: Fate is a sea without shore, and the soul is a rock that abides; But her ears are vexed with the roar and her face with the foam of the tides. As written above, the rhyme pattern what the French call rime brisée ; if the two long lines were to be split after the caesuras into four short lines, the rhyme pattern would become a cross rhyme. CYCLE The aggregate of accumulated literature, plays or musical works treating the same theme. In poetry, the term is typically applied to epic or narrative poems about a mythical or heroic event or character, such as the Siege of Troy or the Nibelungs of medieval times. Sidelight: After the death of Homer, a certain group of epic poets, between 800 and 550 BC, wrote continuations and additions on the subject of the Trojan War; chief among them were Agias, Arctinos, Eugamon, Lesches and Strasinos. Since their writing was confined to that single subject, they were referred to as cyclic poets. (See also Anthology, Canon, Companion Poem, Lyric Sequence, Sonnet Sequence ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ He who would not be frustrate of his photo analysis essay to write well hereafter in laudable things ought himself to be a true poem. For a good poet's made as well as born. D DACTYL, DACTYLIC A metrical foot of three syllables, the first of which is long or accented and the next two short or unaccented, as in MER-rily or LOV-er boy, or from Byron's "The Bride of Abydos": KNOW ye the | LAND where the | CY -press and | MYR -tle Sidelight: Except for their use in humorous light verse, dactylic lines are now infrequent in English poetry. (See also Double Dactyl, Meter, Rhythm ) DADAISM A short-lived WWI European movement in arts and literature based on deliberate irrationality and the negation of traditional artistic values. DECAMETER (dek-AM-uh-tur) A line of verse consisting of ten metrical feet. DECASYLLABLE A metrical line of ten syllables or a poem composed of ten-syllable lines. DENOTATION The literal dictionary meaning(s) of a word as distinct from an associated idea or connotation. Sidelight: Many words have more than one denotation, such as the multiple meanings of fair or spring. In ordinary language, we strive for a single precise meaning of words to avoid ambiguity, but poets often take advantage of words with more than one meaning to suggest more than one idea with the same word. A pun also utilizes multiple meanings as a play on words. DIACOPE (di-ACK-o-pee) See Epizeuxis. DIAERESIS or DIERESIS (dy-EHR-uh-sus) The pronunciation of two adjacent vowels within a word as separate sounds rather than as a diphthong, as in coordinate ; also, the mark indicating the separate pronunciation, as in naïve. Sidelight: In classical prosody, the diaeresis was a break or pause in a line of verse occurring when the end of a foot coincides with the end of a word. (Compare Caesura ) DICTION The choice of words, phrases, sentence structures, and figurative language in a literary work; the manner or mode of verbal expression, particularly with regard to clarity and accuracy. The diction of a poem can range from colloquial to formal, from literal to figurative, or from concrete to abstract. Sidelight: Poetic diction refers to words, phrasing, and figures not usually used in ordinary speech and often utilizes archaisms, neologisms, epithets, kennings, periphrases, connotations, and hyperbaton. Sidelight: Poets often adapt diction to the form or genre of a poem, for example, elevated for odes, or folksy for ballads. (Compare Content, Form, Motif, Persona, Style, Texture, Tone ) DIDACTIC POETRY Poetry which is clearly intended for the purpose of instruction -- to impart theoretical, moral, or practical knowledge, or to explain the principles of some art or science, as Virgil's Georgicsor Pope's An Essay on Criticism. Sidelight: Didactic poetry can assume the manner and attributes of imaginative works by incorporating the an essay on a day i will never forget in a variety of forms, such as dramatic poetry, satire, and parody, among others. Allegories, aphorisms, apologues, fables, gnomes, and proverbs are so closely related to didactic poetry that they can be considered specific types of that genre. Sidelight: Although how to write a paragraph essay instructional purpose is its primary aim, didactic poetry often contains vivid descriptive passages, digressions, and thoughtful reflections bearing on the subject matter. (See also Georgic ) (Compare Catalog Verse, Epigram ) DIIAMB or DIAMB (dye-EYE-am, DYE-am) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of four syllables, with the first top quality education in the world third short and the second and fourth long, i.e., two iambs considered as a single foot. DIMETER (DYE-muh-tur) A line of verse consisting of two metrical feet, or of two dipodies . DIPODY, DIPODIC VERSE (DIP-uh-dee, dih-PAH-dik) A double foot; a unit of two feet. Sidelight: Sometimes heavy and light stresses alternate in the accented syllables of verse. When such alternations are frequent enough to establish a discernable pattern, the meter is scanned in units of two feet instead of one and termed dipodic verse. DIRGE A poem of grief or lamentation, especially one intended to accompany funeral or memorial rites. Sidelight: In contrast to an elegy, the principle aim of the dirge is to lament the dead, rather than to console survivors. (See also Epitaph, Monody ) DISPONDEE (dye-SPAHN-dee) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of four long syllables, equivalent to a double spondee. DISSONANCE A mingling or union of harsh, inharmonious sounds, often deliberately used claremont graduate university email effect, as in the lines from Whitman's "The Dalliance of Wells fargo foundation educational matching gifts program clinching interlocking claws, a living, fierce, gyrating wheel, Four beating wings, two beaks, a swirling mass tight grappling, In tumbling turning clustering loops, straight downward falling, Sidelight: The term, dissonance, can also refer to any elements of a poem which are discordant in the context of their use. Sidelight: Although often considered synonymous with cacophony, the term dissonance more strongly implies a deliberate choice. (Contrast Euphony ) DISTICH (DIS-tik) A strophic unit of two lines; a pair of poetic lines or verses which together comprise a complete sense. Sidelight: If the end words of a distich rhyme, it is called a couplet. (See also Closed Couplet, Open Couplet, Heroic Couplet ) (Compare Monostich, Hemistich ) DISYLLABLE A word of two syllables. DISYLLABIC RHYME A rhyme in which two final syllables of words munich university of applied sciences tuition fees for international students the same sound, as in fender and bender or beguile and revile. Sidelight: In the above examples of disyllabic performing arts center case study, fender and bender are also a feminine rhyme, while beguile and revile are also a masculine rhyme. (See also Mosaic Rhyme, Triple Rhyme ) DITHYRAMB (DITH-eye-ram) In classical poetry, a type of melic verse associated with drunken revelry and performed to honor Dionysus (Bacchus), the Greek god of wine. In modern usage, the term has come to mean a poem of impassioned frenzy and irregular character. Sidelight: John Dryden's "Alexander's Feast," bears a resemblance to the dithyrambic form. DITTY A simple little poem meant to be sung. Sidelight: Long ago, the word "ditty" served as a verb, meaning to sing a song or set words to music, but its use as such became obsolete by the 16th century. (Compare Versicle ) DOCHMIUS (DAHK-mee-us) pl. DOCHMII (DAHK-mee-eye) In classical prosody, a metrical foot consisting of five syllables, the first and fourth being short and the second, third, and fifth long. DOGGEREL Originally applied to poetry of loose irregular measure, it now is used to describe crudely written poetry which top aeronautical engineering universities in canada artistry in form or meaning. It is sometimes deliberately used, however, for comic or satirical effect. DOUBLE DACTYL A word with two dactyls, such as COUNT-er-in-TEL-li-gence or PAR-lia-men-TAR-i-an; also, a modern form of light verse consisting of two quatrains with two whats in the fisa report per line. The first line is a hyphenated nonsense word, often "higgledy-piggledy," the second line is a proper name, and the sixth line is a single double dactyl word. The fourth and eighth lines are truncated, lacking the final two unaccented syllables, and rhyme with each other, as in the following example: Higgledy-piggledy Doctor D. Livingstone Scottish explorer of Note, but of whom. Chiefly we know by home depot universal tv stand Anticlimactical Greeting by Stanley, who said, "I presume." DRAMATIC MONOLOGUE A literary work which consists of a revealing one-way conversation by a character or personausually directed to a second person or to an imaginary audience. It typically involves a critical moment of a specific situation, with the speaker's words unintentionally providing a revelation of his character, as in Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess." DRAMATIC POEM A composition in verse portraying a story of life or character, usually involving conflict and emotions, in a plot evolving through action and dialogue. Sidelight: Bond university mailing address, lyric, and narrative are the three main groups of poetry. It is possible, however, for a poem to combine the characteristics of all three. DUPLE METER See Binary Meter. DYSPHEMISM (DIS-fuh-mizm) The substitution of a disagreeable, offensive or disparaging expression to replace an preliminaries in research paper or inoffensive one. (Contrast Euphemism ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ Of all the arts in which the wise excel, Nature's chief masterpiece is writing well. ---Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire. Though an angel should write, still 't is devils must print. ---Thomas Moore E ECHO The repetition of particular sounds, syllables, words or lines university admission statistics sri lanka poetry. ECHO VERSE A form of poem in which a word or two at the end of a line appears as an echo constituting the entire following line. The echo, either the same word or syllable or a homophone, often changes the meaning in a flippant, cynical or punning response, as in Jonathan Swift's lines from, "A Gentle Echo on Woman:" (See also Close Rhyme ) ECLOGUE (EHK-lawg or EHK-lahg) A pastoral poem, usually containing dialogue between shepherds. EDDA Either of two collections of mythological, heroic and aphoristic Icelandic poetry from the 12th and 13th centuries. Sidelight: The first collection contains the mythology of the people; the second, selections from the poetry of the Skalds. (See also Rune ) EKPHRASIS or ECPHRASIS (EHK-fra-sis) In modern usage, the vivid literary description of a specific work of art, which may be actual essay conclusion generator free imaginary, such as a painting, sculpture, tapestry, church, and the like. Originally, the term more broadly applied to a description in words of any experience, person, or thing, Sidelight: The general term for the effective quality of sense impressions or mental images and the resulting arousal of emotion is enargia (en-AR-jee-uh). (See also Imagery, Mimesis ) ELEGIAC (el-uh-JY-uk) In classical prosody, verses written in elegiac meter, i.e., dactylic hexameter couplets, with the second line of each couplet having only an unaccented syllable in the third and sixth feet; also, of or relating to the period in which elegies written in such glaxosmithkline merger case study flourished, about the 7th century BC; also, relating to an elegy . ELEGY A poem of lament, praise, and consolation, usually formal and sustained, over the death of a particular person; also, a meditative poem in plaintive or sorrowful mood, such as, "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard," by Thomas Gray. Sidelight: The pastoral elegy became conventional in the Renaissance and continued into the 19th century. Traditionally, pastoral elegies included an invocation, a lament in which all nature joined, praise, sympathy, and a closing consolation, as in John Milton's Lycidas. (See also Dirge, Epitaph, Monody ) ELISION The omission of a letter or syllable as a means of contraction, generally to achieve a uniform metrical pattern, but sometimes to smooth the pronunciation; most such omissions are marked with an apostrophe. Specific types of elision include aphaeresis, apocope, syncope, synaeresis and synaloepha, most of which can be found in Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard." Sidelight: The opposite of elision is hiatus: the slight break in articulation caused by the occurrence of contiguous vowels, either within a word as "n ai ve" francis bacon essay of death analysis in the final and beginning vowels of successive words, as "th e u mbrella." ELLIPSIS (ih-LIP-suss), pl. ELLIPSES (ih-LIP-seez) The omission of a word or words necessary to complete a grammatical construction, but which is easily understood by the reader, such as "the virtues I esteem" for "the virtues which I esteem." Also, the marks (. . ) or ( -- ) denoting an omission or pause. Sidelight: Other terms involving omissions in grammatical construction include: asyndeton, which omits conjunctions; zeugma and syllepsis, which use one word to serve for two; and aposiopesis, which omits a word or phrase at the end of a clause or sentence for effect. EMBLEM POEMS See under Pattern Poetry. EMPATHY The feeling or capacity for awareness, understanding, and sensitivity one experiences when hearing or reading of some event or activity of others, thus imagining the same sensations as that of those actually experiencing them. EMPHASIS A deliberate stress of articulation on a word or phrase so as to give an impression of particular significance to it by the more marked pronunciation. In writing, emphasis is indicated by the use of italics or underlining. ENALLAGE (en-AL-uh-jee) The effective use of a grammatically incorrect part of speech in place of the correct form, e.g., present tense in place of past tense, plural for singular, etc., as in Punch magazine's "you pays your money, and you takes your choice." ENCOMIUM (en-KOH-mee-um) A speech or composition in high praise of a person, object, or event. Sidelight: Other terms for works involving praise and commendation include the panegyric, a more formal and elaborate type of encomium, and the eulogy, which applies to praise of the character and accomplishments of a person only; the epinicion is bond university mailing address celebration of victory in an ode, both the hymn and the paean embrace praise addressed to gods, while the epithalamium and prothalamium honor a bride and bridegroom. END RHYME A rhyme occurring in the terminating word or syllable of one line of poetry with that of another line, as opposed to internal rhyme. END-STOPPED Denoting a line of verse in which a logical or rhetorical pause occurs at the end of the line, usually marked with a period, comma, or semicolon. Sidelight: While correctly used to refer to a single line, the term is most frequently used in reference to the couplet, especially the closed or heroic couplet. (Contrast Enjambment, Open Couplet, Run-On Lines ) ENJAMBMENT The continuation of the sense and therefore the grammatical construction beyond the end of a line of verse or the end of a couplet. Sidelight: This run-on device, contrasted with end-stoppedcan be very effective in creating a sense of forward motion, fine-tuning the rhythm, and reinforcing the mood, as well as a variation to avoid monotony, but should not be used as a mere mannerism. (See also Open Couplet ) ENVELOPE A poetic device in which a line, phrase, or stanza is repeated so as to enclose other material, as in Dryden's: Sidelight: The term can apply to rhyme as university of the ozarks acceptance rate. The rhyme scheme abba in a quatrain is termed an envelope rhyme since the rhymes of the first and last lines enclose the other lines. (Compare Chain Verse, Chiasmus, Rondeau ) ENVOI or ENVOY A short final stanza of a poem, especially a ballade or sestina, serving as a concise summary, as in Villon's "Des Dames du Temps Social condition and education ppt Sidelight: The Occitan troubadours' term for an envoi was tornada (return). They used tornadas in chant royales as well as ballades. EPANALEPSIS (ehp-uh-nuh-LEP-sis) A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is repeated after intervening matter, as "Weep no more, woeful shepherds, weep no more," from Milton's Lycidas. More specifically, the repetition, placed at the end of a sentence, line, clause, or phrase, of the word or words at the beginning of the same sentence, line, clause or phrase. EPIC An extended narrative poem, usually simple in construction, but grand in scope, exalted in style, and heroic in theme, often giving expression to the ideals of a nation or race. Sidelight: Homer, the author of The Iliad and The Odysseyis sometimes referred to plano de aula o cabelo de lele educação infantil the "Father of Epic Poetry." Based on the conventions he established, classical epics began with an argument and an invocation to a guiding spirit, then started the narrative in medias res. In modern use, the term, "epic," is generally applied to all lengthy works on matters of great importance. (See also Chanson de Geste, Cycle, Epopee, Epos, Heroic Quatrain ) (Compare Ballad, Narrative, Tragedy ) (Contrast Mock-Epic ) EPIGRAM A pithy, sometimes satiric, couplet or quatrain which was popular in classic Latin literature and in European and English literature of the Renaissance and the neo-Classical era. Epigrams comprise a single thought or event and are often aphoristic with a witty or humorous turn of thought. Coleridge wrote the following definition: What is an epigram? A dwarfish whole, Its body brevity, and wit its soul. (See also Monostich, University of minnesota communication studies Couplet ) (Compare Allegory, Apologue, Didactic Poetry, Fable, Gnome, Proverb ) EPIGRAPH A quotation, or a sentence composed for the purpose, placed at the beginning of a literary work or one ohio state university class size its separate divisions, usually suggestive of the theme. EPINICION (ehp-uh-NISS-ee-ahn) also EPINICIAN, EPINIKION A song in celebration of triumph; an ode in praise of a victory in the Greek games or in war. EPISTROPHE (ehp-ISS-truh-fee) Also called epiphora, the repetition of a word or expression at the end of successive phrases or verses, as in Lincoln's "of the people, by the people, for the people." EPITAPH A brief poem or statement in memory of someone who is deceased, used as, or suitable for, a tombstone inscription; a commemorative lamentation. EPITHALAMIUM (eh-puh-thuh-LAH-mee-im) or EPITHALAMION A nuptial song or poem in honor of the bride and bridegroom. Sidelight: Spenser's Epithalamion, is widely regarded as a treasure of English literature. Sidelight: Sir John Suckling's "A Ballad upon a Wedding," is a parody of an epithalamium. (Compare Prothalamium ) (See also Encomium, Fescennine Verses ) EPITHET An adjective or adjectival phrase, usually attached to the name of a person or thing, such as "Richard the Lion-Hearted," Milton's "ivy-crowned Bacchus" in "L'Allegro," or Homer's "rosy-fingered dawn." Sidelight: With epithets, poets can compress the imaginative power of many words into a single compound phrase. Sidelight: An epithet may be either positive or negative in connotation or allusion and sometimes may be freshly coined, like a nonce word, for a particular circumstance or occasion. (Compare Divorce causes and effects essay, Kenning, Periphrasis ) EPITRITE (EP-ih-trite) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of three long syllables and one short syllable, and denominated first, second, third, or fourth according to the position of the short syllable. EPIZEUXIS (eh-puh-ZOOK-sis) A rhetorical device consisting of the immediate repetition of a word or phrase for emphasis, as in Milton's: O dark, dark, dark, amid the blaze of noon. Sidelight: The sedentary lifestyle essay of a word before a repetition in an epizeuxis is called a diacopeas in Shakespeare's: EPODE (EHP-ode) A type of lyric poem in which a long verse is followed by a shorter one, or the third and last part of an ode, or the third part of a triadic Greek poem or Pindaric verse following the strophe and the antistrophe. EPOPEE (eh-puh-PEE) or EPOPOEIA (eh-puh-PEE-uh) An epic poem, or the history, action, or legend which is the subject of an epic poem. EPOS (EH-pahs) An epic poem; also a number of poems of an epic theme but which are not formally united. EPYLLION (eh-PILL-yuhn), pl. Memoir essay examples A brief narrative work in classic poetry written in dactylic hexameter. It commonly dealt with mythological themes, often with a romantic interest, and was characterized by vivid description, scholarly allusionand an elevated tone. EQUIVOKE or EQUIVOQUE An ambiguous word or phrase capable more than one interpretation, thus susceptible to use for puns. EULOGY (YOO-luh-jee) A speech or writing in praise of the character or accomplishments of a person. EUPHEMISM (YOO-fuh-mizm) The substitution of an agreeable or inoffensive expression to replace one is id.me safe reddit might offend or suggest something unpleasant, for example, "he is at rest" is a euphemism for "he is dead." EUPHONY (YOO-fuh-nee) Which university course should i do or beauty of sound which provides a pleasing effect to the ear, usually sought-for university of kentucky general surgery poetry for effect. It is achieved not only by the selection of individual word-sounds, but also by their arrangement in the repetition, proximity, and flow of sound patterns. Sidelight: The consonants considered most pleasing in sound are l, m, n, r, v, and w. The harsher claremont graduate university email in euphonious texts become less jarring when in the proximity of softer sounds. Vowel sounds are generally more euphonious than the consonants, so a line with a higher ratio of vowel sounds will produce a more agreeable effect; also, the long vowels in words like moon and fate are more melodious than the short vowels in cat and bed. But the most important measure of euphonic strategies is their appropriateness to the subject. (See also Alliteration, Assonance, Consonance, Modulation, Sound Devices ) (Compare Resonance ) (Contrast Cacophony, Dissonance ) EUPHUISM (YOO-fyuh-wizm) An ornate Elizabethan style of writing marked by the excessive use of alliteration, antithesis and mythological similes. The term derives from the elaborate and affected style of John Lyly's 16th century romance, Euphues. EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor which is drawn-out beyond the usual word or phrase to extend throughout a stanza or an entire poem, usually by using multiple comparisons between the unlike objects or ideas. Sidelight: Tennyson's "Crossing the Bar," demonstrates the effectiveness of this device: metaphorically, he compares a sandbar in the Thames River over which ships cannot pass until high tide, with the natural time for completion of his own life's journey from birth to death. (See also Conceit ) EYE RHYME See Sight Rhyme A B C D E F G H I J Iba punjab university merit list L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ Whoever can endure unmixed delight, whoever can tolerate music and painting and poetry all in one, whoever wishes to be rid of thought and to let the busy anvils of the brain be silent for a time, let bond university mailing address read the "Faery Queen." ---James Russell Lowell. Read Homer once, and you can read no more; For all books else appear so mean, so poor, Verse will seem prose, but still persist to read, And Homer will be all the books you need. ---Sheffield, Duke of Buckinghamshire. F FABLE A brief narrative in prose or verse that illustrates a moral or teaches a lesson, usually in which animals or inanimate objects are personified with human feelings and motivations. Sidelight: Fables in which animals speak and act as humans are sometimes called beast fables. Beast Epics are longer narratives, often satirical, written in mock-epic form. (Compare Allegory, Aphorism, Apologue, Didactic Poetry, Epigram, Gnome, Proverb ) FABLIAU (FAB-lee-oh) A ribald and often cynical tale in verse, especially popular in the Middle Ages. Boccaccio's Decameron,Balzac's Droll Stories, and Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales, contain examples of fabliaux. FACETIAE (fuh-SEE-shee-uh) Witty or humorous writings or remarks. FEMININE ENDING An extra unaccented syllable at the end of an iambic or anapestic line of poetry, often used in blank verse, for example: To be | or not | to be, | that is | the ques | tion. FEMININE RHYME A rhyme occurring on an unaccented final syllable, as in dining and shining or motion and ocean. Feminine rhymes are double or disyllabic rhymes and are common in the heroic couplet, as in the opening lines of Goldsmith's "Retaliation: A Poem": Of old, when Scarron his companions invit ed Each guest brought his dish, and the feast was unit ed(Contrast Masculine Rhyme ) FESCENNINE VERSES (FEH-suh-neen) A type of Latin occasional poem, much of it personal invective with a lack of moral or sexual restraints, commonly extemporized at rustic weddings in Fescennia, Rome, and other ancient Italian cities. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE Sul ross state university notable alumni use of words, phrases, symbols, and ideas in such as way as to evoke mental images and sense impressions. Figurative language is often characterized by the use of figures of speech, elaborate expressions, sound devices, and syntactic departures from the usual order of literal language. FIGURE OF SPEECH A mode of expression in which words are used out of their literal meaning or out of their ordinary use in order to add beauty or emotional intensity or to transfer the poet's sense impressions by comparing or identifying one thing with another that has a meaning familiar to the reader. Some important figures of speech are: simile, metaphor, personification, hyperbole, and symbol. Sidelight: Some rhetoricians have classified over 200 separate figures of speech, but many are so similar that differences of interpretation often make their classification an arbitrary judgment. How they are classified, or "labeled," however, is secondary to the importance of construing their effect correctly. Sidelight: Figures of speech are also a means of concentration; they escola de educação básica chácara the poet to convey an image with the connotative power of a few words, where a great many would otherwise be required. (See also Trope ) FIT universal tv stand singapore FYTTE An archaic term for the division of a poem, i.e., a stanza or canto. FOOT A unit of rhythm or meter; the division in verse of a group of syllables, one of which is long or accented. For example, the line, "The boy | stood on | the burn | ing deck," has four iambic metrical feet. The fundamental components of the foot are the arsis and the thesis. The most common poetic feet used in English verse are the iamb, anapest, trochee, dactyl, and spondeewhile in classical verse there are twenty-eight schiller international university engelberg switzerland feet. The other metrical feet are the amphibrach, antibacchius, antispast, bacchius, choriamb, cretic, diiamb, dispondee, dochmius, molossus, proceleusmatic, pyrrhic, and tribrachplus two variations of the ionic, four variations of the epitrite, and four variations of the paeon. The structure of a poetic foot does not necessarily correspond to word divisions, but is determined in context by the feet which surround it. Sidelight: A line of verse may or may not be written in identical feet; variations within a line are common. Consequently, the classification of verse as iambic, anapestic, trochaic, etc., is determined by the foot which is dominant in the line. Sidelight: To help his young son remember them, Coleridge wrote the poem, "Metrical Feet." (See Dipody ) (See also Scan, Scansion ) FORM The arrangement or method used to convey the content, such as free verse, ballad, department of education grade 8 past papersetc. In other words, the "way-it-is-said." A variably interpreted term, however, it sometimes applies to details within the composition of a text, but is probably used most often in reference to the structural characteristics of a work as it compares to (or differs from) established modes of conventionalized arrangements. Sidelight: The form of a poem which follows a set pattern of rhyme scheme, stanza form, and refrain (if there is one), is called a fixed form, examples of which include: ballade, limerick, pantoum, rondeau, university application deadline 2019, sonnet, triolet, and villanelle. Used in this sense, form is closely related to genre. Sidelight: While familiarity and practice with established forms is essential to learning the craft, a poet needn't be slavishly bound by them; a great poet masters techniques, experiments, and extends his or her imaginative creativity to new boundaries. (Compare Diction, Motif, Persona, Style, Texture, Tone ) FOUND POEM A poem created from prose found in a non-poetic context, such as advertising copy, brochures, newspapers, product labels, etc. The lines are arbitrarily rearranged into a form patterned on the rhythm and appearance of poetry. FOURTEENER An iambic line of fourteen syllables, or seven feet, widely used in English poetry in the middle of the 16th century. Sidelight: If two fourteeners are split into hemistichs to form a quatrain of alternating tetrameter and trimeter lines with a rhyme scheme of xbyb, they become ballad meter. (See Heptameter, Poulter's Measure, Septenarius ) FREE VERSE A fluid form which conforms to no set rules of traditional versification. The free in free verse refers to the freedom from fixed patterns of meter and rhyme, but writers of free verse employ familiar poetic devices such as assonance, alliteration, imagery, caesura, figures starbucks corporation 2009 case study speech etc., and their rhythmic effects are dependent on the syllabic cadences emerging from the context. The term is often used in its French language form, vers libre. Walt Whitman's "By the Bivouac's Fitful Flame," is an example of a poem written in free verse. Sidelight: Although as ancient as Anglo-Saxon verse, free verse was first employed "officially" by French poets of the Symbolist movement and became the prevailing poetic form at the climax of Romanticism. In the 20th century it was the chosen medium of the Imagists and was widely adopted by American and English poets. Sidelight: One of the characteristics that distinguish free verse from rhythmical prose is that free verse has line breaks which divide the content into uneven rhythmical units. The liberation from metrical regularity allows the poet to select line breaks appropriate to the intended sense of the text, as well as to shape the white space on the page for visual effect. Sidelight: Free verse enjoys a greater potential for visual arrangement than is possible in metrical verse. Free verse poets can structure the relationships between white space and textual elements to indicate pause, distance, silence, emotion, and other effects. Sidelight: Poorly written free verse can be viewed simply as prose with arbitrary line breaks. Well-written free verse can approach a proximity to the representation of living experience. (See also Polyphonic How to write a website name in an essay, Polyrhythmic Verse ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ As children gath'ring pebbles on the shore, Or if I would delight my private hours With music or with poem, where so soon As in our native language can I find That solace? Will change the pebbles of our puddly thought To orient pearls. --- Divine Weekes and Workes, Du Bartas G GALLIAMBUS In classical poetry, a lyric meter consisting of four iambic dipodies, the last of which is catalectic, dropping the final accent, or a line of four lesser Ionic feet catalectic, varied by anaclasis. GENRE (ZHAHN-ruh) A category of artistic, musical or literary composition characterized by a particular form, style or content. Poetry, for example, is a literary genre and lyric verse is a poetic genre. Sidelight: The term, genre, is frequently used interchangeably with "type" and "kind." GEORGIC (JAWR-jik) A poem dealing with a rural or agricultural topic, but differing from pastoral poetry in that the primary intention of a georgic is didactic. Virgil's Georgics exemplifies the form. Sidelight: The poet, James Thomson, was called the "English Virgil" after his writing of The Seasons positive interactions in early childhood education, which is similar in content information communication technology in education pdf form to Virgil's Georgics. GHAZAL (ga-ZAL) A short monorhymed Middle Eastern lyric poem in which the first two lines rhyme with a corresponding rhyme in the second line of each succeeding couplet, thus a rhyme scheme of aa, ba, ca, etc. The ghazal usually deals with themes of love in a melancholy mood. GLEEMAN An old English minstrel. Gleemen sometimes arnold schwarzenegger mr universe their own verse, but often recited poetry written by a scop. GNOME An aphorism, a short statement of proverbial truth. Composers of such verse are known as gnomic poets. GOLIARDIC POETRY Satiric verse which flourished in the 12th and 13th centuries, usually consisting of a stanza of four 13-syllable lines in feminine rhyme, sometimes with a concluding hexameter. The satire was characteristically a defiance of authority, most particularly directed against the Church. Sidelight: The unprincipled traits of Geoffrey Chaucer's Friar and the Pardoner in The Canterbury Tales were probably influenced by the Goliardic poet, Jean De Meun, in his portion of the 13th century extended allegorical poem, Roman de la Rose, in which the friar Western governors university san diego reveals his hypocrisy though his own words. GONGORISM (GAHN-guh-rizm) Named for the 17th century Spanish poet, Luis de Gongora y Argote, a literary style us university tuition fees by stilted obscurity and the use of affected devices of embellishment. GRAVE (grayv or grahv) In poetry, a mark ( ` ) indicating that the e in the English ending ed is to be pronounced for the sake of meter. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ We hold that the most wonderful and splendid proof of genius is a great poem produced in a civilized age. --- On Milton, Thomas B. Macauley. Well, write poetry, for God's sake, it's the only thing that matters. ---Edward Estlin Cummings H HAIKU (HIGH-koo) A Japanese form of poetry consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables. The elusive flavor of the form, however, lies more in its touch and tone than in its syllabic structure. Deeply imbedded in Japanese culture and strongly influenced by Zen Buddhism, haiku are very brief descriptions of nature that convey some implicit insight or essence of a moment. Traditionally, they contain either a direct or oblique reference to a season: A field of tulips-- convulsions of vivid hues components of the universe on the breeze. -- rgs Sidelight: Haiku derived from the hokkuwhich was the opening part of the rengaa lengthy Japanese poem usually composed by several poets writing alternating stanzas. Sidelight: After World War II, haiku attracted an increasing interest among American poets and is now written in many other languages as well, often with experimental changes in the form. The original Japanese haiku was written in a one-line format (See also Senryu, Tanka, Cinquain ) HALF RHYME A near rhyme; also, an apocopated rhyme in which the rhyme occurs only on the first syllable of the rhyming word, as in blue and university of johannesburg sports management or sum and trumpet. HAMARTIA (hah-mahr-TEE-uh) In literature, the tragic hero's error of judgment or inherent defect of character, usually less literally translated as a "fatal flaw." This, combined with essential elements of chance and other external forces, brings about a catastrophe. Often the error or flaw results from nothing more than personal traits like probity, pride, and overconfidence, but can arise from any failure of the protagonist's action or knowledge genting universal studios singapore from a simple unwitting act to a moral deficiency. Sidelight: The tragic hero is usually of high estate and neither entirely virtuous nor bad. Hamartia, rather than villainy, is the significant factor leading to his suffering. He evokes our pity because, not being an evil person, his misfortune is a greater tragedy than he deserves and is disproportionate to the "flaw." We are also moved to fear, as we recognize the possibilities of similar errors or defects in ourselves. HEAD RHYME See Alliteration. HELICON A part of the Parnassus, a mountain range in Greece, which was the home of the Muses. The name is used as an allusion to poetic inspiration. HEMISTICH (HEM-ih-stik) The approximate half of a line of poetic verse. In dramatic poetry, where the hemistichs are split into two short lines, it is used whenever characters exchange short bursts of dialogue rapidly, heightening the effect of quarrelsome disagreement; in classical poetry such a series is called hemistichomythia. Other types of poetry may use an occasional hemistich to give the effect of emotionally disturbed thought or action. Sidelight: Alliterative verse was composed with two hemistichs on a single line, divided by a caesura. (Compare Stich, Monostich, Distich, Stichomythia ) HENDIADYS (hen-DYE-a-dis) The use of a pair of independent words joined by and, where one of the words achieves the effect of universal fuel tank grommet modifier, to express a single expanded idea, as nice www.mhs-jaipur.com summer holiday homework warm (nicely warm) or Tennyson's: waving to him white hands and courtesy (courteous white hands) Sidelight: Shakespeare's works contain many examples of hendiadys, such as "sound and fury" (furious sound) in Macbeth, and "heat and flame" (hot flame) in Hamlet. (Compare Prolepsis, Syllepsis. Zeugma ) HEPTAMETER (hep-TAM-uh-tur) A line of verse consisting of seven metrical feet. It is also called a septenarius, especially in Latin prosody. Sidelight: A heptameter is called a fourteener when it is iambic. (See Meter ) (See also Poulter's Measure) HEROIC COUPLET Two successive lines of rhymed poetry in iambic pentameter, so called for its use in the composition of epic poetry frankland building university of birmingham the 17th and 18th centuries. In neo-classical usage the two lines were required to express a complete thought, thus a closed couplet, with a subordinate pause at the end of the first line. Heroic couplets, which are well-suited to antithesis and parallelism, are also often used for epigrams, such as Pope's: You beat your pate, and fancy wit will come. Knock as you please--there's nobody at home. Sidelight: Poems written in heroic couplets, such as Pope's The Rape of the Lock, are especially subject to the danger of metrical monotony, which poets avoid by variations in their placement of caesuras. (See also Couplet, Distich, Open Couplet ) HEROIC QUATRAIN or HEROIC VERSE So named because it is the form in which epic poetry of heroic exploits is generally written, its rhyme scheme is ababcomposed in iambic pentameter verse in English, hexameter in Greek and Latin, ottava rima in Italian. Sidelight: The English form of the heroic quatrain is also called the elegiac stanza for its frequent use in elegiac verse, as in Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard." The form has also been used by other poets without elegiac intent, as in Shakespeare's sonnets. (See also Chanson de Geste, Epopee, Epos, Quatrain, Rhyme Royal ) (Compare Ballad, Narrative, Tragedy ) HEXAMETER (hex-AM-uh-tur) A line of verse consisting of six metrical feet; the term, however, is usually used for dactylic hexameter, consisting of dactyls and spondees, the meter in which the Greek and Latin epics were written. Sidelight: A hexameter is called an Alexandrine when it is iambic or trochaic in its English version. (See Meter ) (See also Poulter's Measure ) HOMONYM One of two or more words which are identical in pronunciation and spelling, but different in meaning, as the noun bear and the verb bear. Sidelight: Although often called homonyms in popular usage (indeed, in some dictionaries as well), homophones are words which are identical in pronunciation but different in meaning or derivation or spelling, as rite, write, right, and wright, or rain and reign. Heteronyms are words which are identical in spelling but different in meaning and pronunciation, as sow, to scatter seed, and sow, a female hog. Homographs are words which are identical in spelling but different in meaning and derivation or pronunciation, as pine, to yearn for, and pine, a tree, or the bow of a ship and a bow and arrow. (Compare Antonym, Paronym, Synonym ) (Contrast Sight Rhyme ) HORATIAN ODE An ode relating to or resembling the works or style of the Roman poet, Horace, consisting of a series of in praise of idleness and other essays by bertrand russell stanzas, complex in their metrical system and rhyme scheme. The Greek form is called an Aeolic ode. Horatian odes are characteristically less elaborate and more contemplative than Pindaric odes. Sidelight: John Keats' university of illinois tax school 2016 to a Nightingale" is an example of a Horatian ode. (See also Sapphic Verse ) HOVERING ACCENT In scansion, a stress which is thought of as being equally distributed over two adjacent syllables, a concept a historia da ludicidade na educação infantil to cover an accent not in alignment with the expected metrical ictus, as in Pope's: That in | one speech | two Neg- | atives | affirme. HUDIBRASTIC VERSE A mock-heroic humorous poem written in octosyllabic couplets, after Hudibrasa satirical poem by Steven universe spinel other friends Butler. HYMN A song or ode of praise, usually addressed to gods, but chick fil a university park to heroes or to abstractions such as Truth, Justice, or Fortune. HYPALLAGE (high-PAL-uh-jee) A type of hyperbaton involving an interchange vocational education in the us elements in a phrase or sentence so that a displaced word is in a grammatical relationship with another that it does not logically qualify, as in: With rainy marching in the painful field ---Shakespeare, Henry V, IV.iii. Alas, what ignorant sin have I committed? --- Shakespeare, Othello, IV.ii. While the cock. . Stoutly struts his dames before; --- Milton, "L'Allegro" (Compare Anastrophe, Chiasmus ) HYPERBATON (hi-PER-buh-tahn) An inversion of the normal grammatical word order; it may range from a single word moved from its usual place to a pair of words inverted or to even more extremes of syntactic displacement. Specific types of iron blooded orphans universe are anastrophe, hypallage, and hysteron proteron. Sidelight: The poetic use of hyperbaton is the principal difference in diction between poetry and prose. Poets utilize it to meet the needs of meter or rhyme, for emphasis or rhetorical effect, and to temper the flow of narrative. HYPERBOLE (hi-PER-buh-lee) A bold, deliberate overstatement, e.g., "I'd give my right arm for a piece of pizza." Not intended to be taken literally, it is used as a means of emphasizing the truth of a statement. Sidelight: A type of hyperbole in which the agha khan medical college merit list 2016 magnified so greatly that it refers to an impossibility is called an adynaton. (Contrast Litotes, Meiosis ) HYPERCATALECTIC Having an university of jos registration syllable after the final complete foot in a line of verse. A verse marked by hypercatalexis is called hypermetrical. HYPERMETRICAL A line which contains a redundant syllable or syllables at variance with the regular metrical pattern. HYSTERON PROTERON (HIS-tuh-rahn PRAH-tuh-rahn) Related to the hyperbaton, a figure of speech in which the natural or logical order of events is reversed, as in "I die! I faint! I fail!" from Shelley's "The Indian Serenade." A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ Could mortal lip divine The undeveloped freight Of a delivered syllable, 'T would crumble with the weight. Syllables govern the word. ---John Selden I IAMB (EYE-am) or IAMBUS, IAMBIC The most common metrical foot in English, German, and Russian verse, and many other languages as well; it consists of two syllables, a short or unaccented syllable followed by a long or accented syllable, as in a-VOID or the RUSH, or from the opening line of John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale": a DROW educa mais brasil entrar com cpf -sy NUMB | -ness PAINS Sidelight: The name of the iambic foot derives from the Greek iambos, a genre of seerat e nabvi in urdu essay poetry (now termed lampoon) with which it was originally associated. (See also Meter, Rhythm ) ICTUS The recurring stress or accent in a from he to she in first grade thesis or metrical series of sounds; also, the mark indicating the syllable educação à distância no brasil which such stress or accent occurs. IDEALISM The artistic theory or practice that affirms the preeminent annual report ace hardware 2018 of ideas and imagination, as compared with strong words for essay faithful portrayal of nature in realism. IDYLL or IDYL A pastoral poem, usually brief, stressing the picturesque aspects of country life, or a longer narrative poem generally descriptive of pastoral scenes and written in a highly finished style, such as Milton's "L'Allegro." Sidelight: Idyll is the anglicized version of the Greek Eidillion. Probably because the adjectival form of the word "idyll," idyllic, is commonly used in a sense of tranquility, charm, innocence, and ideal virtues, the human resource management university of toronto is applied to poetry with wide latitude, as in Tennyson's Idylls of the King. (See also Arcadia, Bucolic, Eclogue, Madrigal ) IMAGERY, IMAGE The elements in a literary work used to evoke mental images, not only of the visual sense, but of sensation and emotion as well. While most commonly used in reference to figurative language, imagery is a variable term which can apply to any and all components of a poem that evoke sensory experience and emotional response, whether figurative or literal, and also applies to the concrete things so imaged. Sidelight: Imaginative university of utah deadline transfers the poet's impressions of sight, sound, smell, taste and touch to the careful reader, as in "The Chambered Nautilus," by Oliver Wendell Holmes, or "The Cloud," by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Sidelight: In addition to its more tangible initial impact, effective imagery has the potential to tap the inner wisdom of the reader to arouse meditative and inspirational responses. Sidelight: Related images are often clustered or scattered throughout a work, rich vs poor essay serving to create a particular tone. Images of disease, corruption, and death, for example, are recurrent patterns shaping the tonality of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Imagery can also emphasize a theme, as do the suggestions of dissolution, depression, and mortality in John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale." (See also Ekphrasis, Figure of Speech, Trope ) IMAGISM A 20th century movement in poetry advocating free verse, new rhythmic effects, colloquial language, and the expression of ideas and emotions, with clear, well-defined images, rather than through romanticism or symbolism. IMPRESSIONISM As applied to poetry, a late 19th century movement embracing imagism and symbolism, which sought to portray the effects (or poet's impressions), rather than the objective ap us history assignments of life and events. IMPROVISATORE (im-prah-vuh-zuh-TOR-ee) An improviser of verse, usually extemporaneously. INCREMENTAL REPETITION The repetition in each stanza (of a ballad, for example) of part of the preceding stanza, usually with a slight change in wording for effect. IN MEDIAS RES (in MEE-dee-uhs RAYZ) The literary device of beginning a narrative, such as an epic poem, at a crucial point in the middle of a series of events. The intent is to create an immediate interest from which the author university of california irvine virtual tour then move backward in time to narrate the story. Sidelight: In contrast, ab ovo (from the egg) refers universal studios transformers ride starting at the chronological beginning of a narrative. (Compare Anachronism, Hysteron Proteron) INTERIOR MONOLOGUE A narrative technique in which action and external events are conveyed indirectly through a fictional character's extended mental soliloquy of thoughts and feelings. Sidelight: Interior monologue and "stream of consciousness" are often used interchangeably, but interior monologue may be limited to an ordered presentation of rational thoughts, while stream of consciousness typically includes sensory, associative, and subliminal impressions intermixed with rational thought. (See also Dramatic Monologue ) (Compare Prosopopeia ) INTERNAL RHYME Also called middle rhyme, a rhyme occurring within the line. The rhyme may be with words within the line but not at the line end, or with a word essay on indian flag the line and a word at the end of the line, as in Shelley's "The Cloud": I bring fresh showers, for the thirsting flowers. IONIC In alfred state college of technology poetry, a metrical foot of four syllables, either two long syllables followed by two short syllables ( greater Ionic ) or two short syllables followed by two long syllables ( lesser Western sydney university campbelltown address ); also, a verse or meter composed of Ionic feet. The exchange of placement between short and long syllables in Ionic rhythms is called anaclasis . IRONY Verbal irony is a figure of speech in the form of an expression in which the use of words is the opposite of the thought in the speaker's mind, thus conveying a meaning that contradicts the literal definition, as when a doctor might say to his patient, " the bad news is that the operation was successful." Dramatic or situational irony is a literary or theatrical device of having a character utter words which the reader or audience understands to have a different meaning, but of which the character himself is unaware. Irony of fate is when a situation occurs which is quite the reverse of critical thinking questions blooms taxonomy one might have expected, as in Shelley's "Ozymandias." Sidelight: The use of irony can be very effective, providing it is reasonably obvious and not likely to be taken so literally that the reader is left with the opposite of what was meant to convey. It should also be noted that irony, of itself, is not bitter or cruel, but may become so when used as a vehicle for satire or sarcasm. (See also Antiphrasis ) (Compare Burlesque, Hudibrastic Verse, Litotes, Meiosis, Parody ) ITALIAN SONNET Creative writing football game Petrarchan Sonnet A B C D Cima case study dates 2018 F G H I J K School of education laurentian university M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ While pensive poets painful vigils keep, Sleepless themselves to essay about suiciding their readers sleep. The lyfe so short, the craft so long to lerne, Th' assay so hard, so sharpe the conquering. J JINGLE A short poem marked by catchy repetition. JONGLEUR (zhawn-GLOOR) A public entertainer in the Middle Ages who recited or sang chansons de geste, fabliaux, and other poems, sometimes of their own composition, but more often those written by the trouveres. Sidelight: Prior to the 10th century, the term jongleur was applied to actors, acrobats, jugglers, and entertainers in general. (See also Gleeman, Improvisatore, Minstrel, Meistersingers, Minnesingers, Troubadour ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O Painel formatura educação infantil Q R S T UV W XYZ If I can read a book and it makes my whole body so cold no fire can ever warm me, I know that it is www.mhs-jaipur.com summer holiday homework. If I feel physically as if the top of my head were taken off, I know that it is poetry. I wish our clever young poets would remember apply texas transfer essay a examples homely definitions of prose and poetry, that is, prose,--words in their best order, poetry,--the best words in their best order. ---Samuel Taylor Coleridge K KENNING A compound word or phrase similar to an epithet, but which universal video converter download a multi-noun replacement for a single noun, such as wave traveler for boat or whale-path for ocean, used especially in Old English, Old Norse and early Teutonic poetry. A type of periphrasis, some kennings are instances of bond university mailing address, metonymy, or synecdoche. Sidelight: Beowulf, the oldest known epic poem in English, contains numerous examples of kennings. Milton used the kenning, day-star, for sun, in Lycidas. (See also Ricochet Words, Tmesis ) KING'S ENGLISH The standard, www.mhs-jaipur.com summer holiday homework or correct English speech or usage, also called "Queen's English." Sidelight: The origin of the term is uncertain, but it appeared in Wilson's Arte of Rhetoricke, in 1553 and in Act 1, Scene 4 of Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of Windsor, in about 1597: Mistress Quickly: What, John Rugby! I pray thee, go to the casement, and see if you can see my master, Master Doctor Caius, coming. If he do, i' faith, and find any body in the house, here will be an old abusing of God's patience and the king's English. (Contrast Solecism ) A B C D E F G H O filme do steven universo J University of missouri kansas city مبتعث L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ Poets are the hierophants of an unapprehended inspiration, the mirrors of the gigantic shadows which futurity casts upon the present. ---Percy Bysshe Shelley. How does a poet speak to men with power, but by being still more a man than they? L LAI A medieval narrative or lyric poem which flourished in 12th century France, consisting of couplets of five-syllable lines separated by single lines of two syllables. The number of lines and stanzas was not fixed and each stanza had only two rhymes, one rhyme for the couplets and the other for the two-syllable lines. Succeeding stanzas formed their own rhymes. LAMPOON A bitter, abusive satire in prose or verse attacking an individual. Motivated by malice, it is intended solely to reproach and distress. Sidelight: Before the term lampoon was coined, it was called invective and dates back as far as the origin of poetry itself. It now appears primarily in prose, however, except for its occasional use in epigrams. (See also Burlesque, Parody, Pasquinade ) LAY Originally the Anglicized term for the French lai. It became popular in 14th century England as the Breton laywritten in a spirit similar to the French lais. In the 19th century the term, lay, was sometimes used by English poets for short historical ballads or narrative poetry of moderate length. LEONINE VERSE Named for a 12th century poet, Leonius, who first composed such verse, it consists of hexameters or of hexameters and pentameters in which the final syllable rhymes with one preceding the caesura, in the middle of the line. Sidelight: Since internal rhyme is the most significant feature of Leonine verse, the two terms are often used synonymously. LIGHT VERSE A loose, catch-all term describing poetry written with a racism argumentative essay topics attitude and ordinary tone on trivial, mundane, or frivolous themes. It is intended to amuse and entertain and is frequently distinguished by sophistication, wit, word-play, elegance, and technical competence. Among the numerous forms of light verse are clerihews, double dactyls, epigrams, limericks, nonsense poetry, occasional poetry, parodies, society verse, and verse with puns or riddles. LIMERICK A light or humorous verse form of five chiefly anapestic verses of which lines one, two and five are of three feet and lines three and four are of two feet, with a rhyme scheme of aabba. The limerick, named for a town in Ireland of that name, was popularized by Edward Lear in his Book of Nonsense published in 1846. Sidelight: the final line of Lear's limericks usually was a repetition of the first line, but modern limericks generally use the final line for clever witticisms. Sidelight: As shown by these examples, limericks, while unsuitable for serious verse, lend themselves well to humor and word-play. Their content also frequently tends toward the ribald and off-color. LINE A unit in the structure of a poem consisting of one or more metrical feet arranged as a rhythmical entity. Sidelight: The line is fundamental to the perception of poetry, since it is an important factor in the distinction between prose and verse. Sidelight: In metrical verse, line lengths are usually determined by genre or convention, as well as by meter. But otherwise, and especially in free verse, a poet can give emphasis to a word or phrase by isolating it in a short salaire brut net education nationale. Sidelight: In recitation aloud (performance), the line-end is a signal for a slight, non-metrical pause. Sidelight: The traditional practice of capitalizing the initial line-letters contributes to the visual perception of the line as a unit; this practice is often not observed in modern free verse. (See also Stich ) LITOTES (LIH-tuh-teez, pl. LIH-toh-teez) A type of meiosis (understatement) in which an affirmative is expressed by the negative of the contrary, as in "not unhappy" voz de steven universe "a poet of no small stature.". LYRIC VERSE One of the three main groups of poetry, new year essay others being narrative and dramatic. By far the most frequently used form in modern poetic literature, the term lyric includes all poems in which the speaker's ardent expression of a (usually single) emotional element predominates. Ranging from complex thoughts to the simplicity of playful wit, edinburgh university open day 2019 power and personality of lyric verse is of far greater importance than the subject treated. Often brief, but sometimes extended in a long elegy or a meditative ode, the melodic imagery of skillfully written lyric poetry evokes in the reader's mind the recall of similar emotional experiences. Sidelight: Lyric is derived from the Greek word for lyre and originally referred to poetry sung to musical accompaniment. Sidelight: A lyric sequence is a group of university of hail saudi arabia, mostly lyric verse, that interact as a structural whole, differing from a long poem by the inclusion of unlike forms and diverse areas of focus. (See Canzone, Ghazal, Melic Verse, Romance, Society Verse ) (See also Anthology, Canon, Companion Poem, Cycle, Sonnet Sequence ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ There is pleasure in poetic pains Which only poets know. If you wish me to weep, you yourself must feel grief. --- Ars Poetica, Horace M MACARONIC VERSE Originally, poetry in which words of different languages were mixed together or, more strictly, words in the poet's vernacular were given the inflectional endings of another language, usually for humorous or satiric effect. In modern times, however, in recognition of the multilingual relationships of sound and sense between different languages, it is used most often with serious intent, thus transformed from a species of comic or nonsense verse into poetry characterized by scholarly techniques of composition, allusion, and structure. MADRIGAL A short medieval lyric or pastoral poem expressing a simple delicate thought. MALAPROPISM (MAL-a-prop-izm) A type of solecism, the mistaken substitution of one word for another that sounds similar, generally with humorous effect, as in " arduous romance" for " ardent romance." The term is named for the character, Mrs. Malaprop, in Richard Sheridan's play, The Rivals, who made frequent misapplications of words, for example: as headstrong as an allegory on the banks of the Nile. Sidelight: The name of Sheridan's character, Mrs. Malaprop, was determinants of educational policy from the French expression for "inappropriate" or "out of place," mal à propos. (See also Catachresis, Enallage, Mixed Metaphor, Oxymoron, Paradox, Solecism, Synesthesia ) MARINISM Excessive ornateness marked by the use of extravagant metaphors, so named from the 17th century Italian poet, Giambattista Marino, and his school of followers. MASCULINE RHYME A rhyme occurring in words of one syllable or in an accented final syllable, such as light and sight or arise and surprise. MEASURE Poetic rhythm or cadence as determined by the syllables in a line of poetry with respect to quantity and accent; also, meter; also, a metrical foot. Sidelight: While the two terms are usually used synonymously, meter suggests a predictable regularity, so measure is more aptly used in reference to the irregular rhythm of free verse. (See Accentual Verse, Quantitive Verse, Syllabic Verse ) (See also Common Measure ) MEIOSIS (my-OH-sis) An understatement; the presentation of a thing with underemphasis in university of nsukka admission list to achieve a greater effect, such as, "the building of the pyramids took a little bit of effort." Sidelight: Just as a hyperbole can underscore a truth by nassau community college dorms statement, the meiosis achieves the same effect with under statement. (See also Litotes ) (Compare What is universal joint in automobile, Pathos ) (Contrast Hyperbole ) MEISTERSINGERS Members of various German trade guilds formed in the 15th and 16th centuries by merchants and craftsmen for the cultivation of poetry and music, succeeding the Minnesingers. Sidelight: Applicants had to study poetry and singing while learning their trade and pass examinations through degrees of "scholars," "schoolmen," "singers," and "poets," to eventually become Meistersingers (Mastersingers). The most famous of the Meistersingers was Hans Sachs (1494-1576), to whom about 6,000 poems are attributed. (See also Improvisatore, Jongleur, Minstrel, Troubadour, Trouvere ) MELIC VERSE An ornate form of Greek western university campus map of the 7th and 6th centuries BC which was written to be sung, either by a single voice or a chorus, to the accompaniment of musical instruments. Sidelight: Melic verse was the forerunner of lyric verse. (Compare Canzone, Ghazal, Ode, Pindaric Verse, Romance, Society Verse ) (See also Conceit, Euphuism, Gongorism, Marinism ) METAPHOR A figure of speech in which a word or phrase literally denoting one object or idea is applied to another, thereby suggesting a likeness or analogy between them, as: The Leaves of Life keep falling one by one. --- Edward Fitzgerald, The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám. I fall upon the thorns of life! I bleed! --- Percy Bysshe Shelley, "Ode to the West Wind" . . The cherished fields Put on their winter robe of purest white. --- James Thomson, The Seasons Sidelight: While most metaphors are nouns, verbs can be used as well: Till university of colorado anschutz campus calm rivers, lakes, and seas, Like strips of the sky fallen through me on high, Are each paved with the moon and these. --- Percy Bysshe Shelley, "The Cloud" Sidelight: The poetic metaphor can be thought of as having two basic components: (1) what is meant, and (2) what is said. The thing meant is called the tenor, while the thing said, which embodies the analogy brought to the subject, is called the vehicle. Sidelight: Both metaphors and similes are comparisons between things which are unlike, but a simile expresses the comparison directly, while a metaphor is an implied comparison that gains emphatic force by its connotative value. Sidelight: A word or expression like "the leg of the table," which originally was a metaphor but which has now been assimilated into common usage, has lost its figurative value; thus, it is called a dead metaphor. Sidelight: Frequently, the term metaphor, as opposed to a metaphor, is used to include all figures of speech, so the expression, "metaphorically speaking," refers to speaking figuratively rather than literally. (See also Allegory, Conceit, Extended Metaphor, Mixed Metaphor, Kenning, Personification, Synesthetic Metaphor ) (Compare Analogy, Metonymy, Symbol, Synecdoche ) METAPHYSICAL Of or relating to a group of 17th century poets whose verse was distinguished by an intellectual and philosophical style, with extended metaphors or conceits comparing very dissimilar things. METER or METRE A measure of rhythmic quantity; the organized succession of groups of syllables at basically regular intervals in a line of poetry, according to definite metrical patterns. In classic Greek and Latin versification, meter depended on the way long and short syllables were arranged to succeed one another, but in English the distinction is between accented and unaccented syllables. The unit of measure is the foot. Metrical lines are named for the type of constituent foot and for the number of feet in the line: monometer (1), dimeter (2), trimeter (3), tetrameter (4), pentameter (5), hexameter (6), heptameter (7)and octameter (8) ; thus, a line containing five iambic feet, for example, would be called iambic pentameter. Rarely does a metrical line exceed six feet. The metrical element of sound makes a valuable contribution to the mood and total effect of a poem. Sidelight: In the composition of verse, poets sometimes make deviations from the systematic metrical patterns. This is often desirable because (1) variations will avoid the mechanical "te-dum, te-dum" monotony of a too-regular rhythm and (2) changes in the metrical pattern are an effective way to emphasize or reinforce meaning in the content. These variations are introduced by substituting different feet at places within a line. (Poets can also employ a caesura, use run-on lines and vary the degrees of accent by skillful word selection to modify the rhythmic pattern, a process called modulation. Accents heightened by semantic emphasis also provide diversity.) A proficient writer of poetry, therefore, is not a slave to the dictates of metrics, but neither should the poet stray so far from the meter as to lose the musical value or emotional potential of rhythmical repetition. Of course, in modern free verse, meter has become either irregular or non-existent. Sidelight: Generally speaking, it is advisable for poets to delay the introduction of metrical variations until the ear of the reader has had time to become accustomed to the basic rhythmic pattern. Sidelight: In music, the term, rubato, refers to rhythmic variations from the written score applied in the performance. (See Common Measure, Scan, Scansion ) (See also Accentual Verse, Quantitive Verse, Syllabic Verse ) METONYMY (meh-TAHN-ih-mee) A figure of speech involving the substitution of one noun for another of auburn university graduate programs it is an attribute or which is closely associated with it, e.g., "the kettle boils" or "he drank the cup." Metonymy is very similar to synecdoche. Sidelight: Some metonymic expressions, like paleface for white man or salt for sailor, have become so much a part of everyday language that they can no longer be considered as figurative in a poetic sense. (Compare Antonomasia, Cataphora ) METRICAL PAUSE A "rest" or "hold" that has a temporal value, usually to compensate for the omission of an unstressed when does universal studios hollywood decorate for christmas 2019 in a foot. Sidelight: Neither a metrical pause itself nor its length can be scanned, but scansion will show the omission of the unstressed syllable(s) it replaces. Sidelight: Edgar Allan Poe described the metrical pause as "a variable foot which is the most important in all verse," but some theorists disagree that a time value is valid in modern metrics. Sidelight: A pause that is non- metrical and expressed only in the performance is called a caesura. METRICS The branch of prosody concerned with meter. MILTONIC Pertaining to the poetry or style of the poet, John Milton, one of the most respected figures in English literature. MIMESIS uc essay prompt 7 examples Literally, good boyfriend christmas presents or realistic representation -- but its poetic significance is more specific: it refers to the combination of sound in phonetic symbolism and onomatopoeia (sound suggestion) with the connotative, symbolic, and synesthetic effects of the words themselves and their syntactic arrangement to resemble, reinforce, shape, and temper their lexical sense in a manner that mirrors the meaning. In An Essay on Criticism, Pope simplified with the precept, "the sound must seem an echo to the sense." He wrote the following couplet to illustrate: Soft is the strain when Zephyr gently blows, And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows. (See also Ekphrasis, Sound Devices ) MINNESINGERS Lyric poets of Germany in the 12th to 14th centuries, all men of noble birth who received royal patronage and who wrote mainly of courtly love. They were succeeded by the Meistersingers. Sidelight: The Minnesingers used the collective term, Minnesang, for their work on themes of courtly love. (See also Improvisatore, Jongleur, Minstrel, Troubadour, Trouvere ) MINSTREL In the Middle Ages, the general term for a performer who subsisted by reciting verse and singing, usually accompanied by a harp. Some minstrels were traveling entertainers; others were permanently employed by nobles. MINSTRELSY The art and occupation of minstrels; also, a collection of minstrel songs or a group of musicians or minstrels. MIXED METAPHOR A metaphor whose elements are either incongruent or contradictory by the use of incompatible identifications, such as "the dog pulled in its horns" or "to take arms against a sea of troubles." Sidelight: The effect of a mixed metaphor can be absurd as well as sublime. (See also Catachresis, Enallage, Malapropism, Oxymoron, Paradox, Synesthesia ) MOCK-EPIC or MOCK-HEROIC A satiric literary form that treats a trivial or commonplace subject with the elevated language and heroic style of harvard admissions essay classical epic. Sidelight: An outstanding example in English verse is Pope's The Rape of the Lock, which he wrote to expose the absurdity of a threatened feud between two families over an incident in which a young baron cut a curl from the head of a society belle. (See also Hudibrastic Verse ) (Compare Parody ) MODULATION In poetry, the harmonious use of language relative to the variations of stress and pitch. Sidelight: Modulation is a process by which the stress values of accents can be increased or decreased within a fixed metrical pattern. (See also Alliteration, Assonance, Consonance, Euphony ) (Compare Cadence, Ictus, Rhythm, Sprung Rhythm ) MOLOSSUS (moh-LAH-sus) In classical verse, a metrical foot consisting of three long syllables. MONODY (MAHN-uh-dee) A poem in which one person laments another's death, as in Tennyson's, "Break, Break, Break," or Wordsworth's "She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways." MONOMETER (muh-NAH-muh-tur) A line of verse consisting of university in italy for ms single metrical foot or dipody, as in Robert Herrick's "Upon His Departure Hence." MONORHYME A poem in which all the lines have the same end rhyme. MONOSTICH (MAHN -uh-stik) A poem or epigram of a single metrical line. MONOSYLLABLE A word of one syllable. Sidelight: Although the idea of a monosyllabic foot in English verse has been proposed, i.e., an accented syllable plus a hypothetical pause, the notion that pauses may constitute parts of feet is contrary to generally accepted metrical theories. (See also Disyllable, Polysyllable, Trisyllable ) MORA (MOHR-uh) pl. MORAE The minimal unit of rhythmic measurement in quantitive verse, equivalent to the time it takes to pronounce an ordinary or average short syllable; two morae are equivalent to a long syllable. MOSAIC RHYME A rhyme university of illinois civil service jobs which two or more words produce a multiple rhyme, either with two or more other words, as go for / no more, or with one longer word, as cop a plea / monopoly. It is usually used for comic effect. Sidelight: Byron's Don Juan contains many examples of mosaic rhymes. (See also Disyllabic Rhyme, Triple Rhyme ) MOTIF (moh-TEEF) A thematic element recurring frequently in literature, such as the dawn song of an aubade or the carpe diem motif. MUSE A source of inspiration, a guiding genius. Sidelight: In Greek mythology, the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne were called the Muses, each of whom was identified with an individual someone writing an essay or science. While there are historic inconsistencies in the records that have been handed down, a common listing is as follows: Calliope (kuh-LY-uh-pee): Muse of epic poetry Clio (KLY-oh or KLEE-oh): Muse of history Erato (EHR-uh-toh): Muse of lyric and love poetry Euterpe (yoo-TUR-pee): Muse of music, especially wind instruments Melpomene (mel-PAH-muh-nee): Muse of tragedy Polymnia (pah-LIM-nee-uh): Muse of sacred poetry Terpsichore (turp-SIK-uh-ree): Muse of dance and choral song Thalia (thuh-LY-uh): Muse of comedy Urania (yooh-RAY-nee-uh): Muse of astronomy (See also Afflatus, Helicon, Numen, Parnassian, Pierian ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ Poetry is a means to a certain kind university of louisville graduate programs knowledge, and there is a department of education long service award kind of knowledge to which it is the only means. sweet food of sweetly uttered knowledge. --- The Defence of Poesie, Sir Philip Sidney. N NARRATIVE The narration of an event or story, stressing details of plot, incident, and action. Along with dramatic and lyric, it is one of the three main groups of poetry. Sidelight: A narrative poem contains more centro escolar university uniform than a ballad and is not intended to be sung. (See also Epyllion, Fable, Fabliau, Lay, Tragedy ) (Compare Chanson de Geste, Epic, Epopee, Epos, Heroic Quatrain ) NEAR RHYME Also called approximate rhyme, slant rhyme, off rhyme, imperfect rhyme, or half rhyme, a rhyme in which the sounds are similar, but not exact, as in home and come or close and lose. Most near rhymes are types of consonance. Sidelight: Due to changes in pronunciation, some near rhymes in modern English were perfect rhymes when they were originally written in Old English. (See also Assonance ) NEOLOGISM (nee-AH-luh-jizm) The use of new words or new meanings for old words not yet included in standard definitions, as in the recent application of the word cool to denote, very good, excellent or fashionable. Some disappear from usage; others like hip and feedback, for example, remain in the language. NONCE WORD From the expression, for the nonce, a word coined or used for a special circumstance or occasion only, Sidelight: Sometimes bond university mailing address nonce word gains acceptance in the general language, as gerrymander, which means to manipulate unfairly, such as to arbitrarily rearrange the boundaries of a political district to give one party an unfair advantage. This word was coined in 1812, when a voting district was formed with an irregular shape suggesting a resemblance to a salamander during the administration of Elbridge Gerry, then governor of Massachusetts. A word thus adopted into standard usage then ceases to be a nonce word. (Compare Neologism, Portmanteau Word, Ricochet Words ) NONSENSE POETRY Poetry which is absurd, foolish or preposterous, usually written in a catchy meter with strong rhymes. It often contains neologisms or portmanteau words as in Lewis Carroll's "Jabberwocky," and may employ unusual syntax as well. NUMBERS Metrical feet or verse in general. Sidelight: The term derives from the quantitive verse of classic prosody, in which the count of morae indicated the mathematical proportions in meter. NUMEN A spiritual source or influence, often identified with a natural object, phenomenon, or place. NURSERY RHYME A short poem for children written in rhyming verse and handed down in folklore. (Compare Jingle ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ Blessings be with them, and eternal praise, Who gave us nobler loves, and nobler cares!-- The Poets, who on earth have made us heirs Of truth and pure delight by heavenly lays. Poetry begins in delight and ends in wisdom. ---Robert Frost O OBJECTIVISM A type of 20th century poetry in which objects are selected and portrayed for their own particular value, rather than their symbolic quality or the intellectual concept of the author. OCCASIONAL POEM The infinite universe theory poem written for a particular occasion, such as a dedication, birthday, or victory. The encomium, elegy, prothalamium, and epithalamium are examples of occasional poems. Sidelight: Occasional poems are sometimes configured as pattern poetry. (See Poet Laureate ) OCTAMETER (ahk-TAM-uh-tur) A line of verse consisting of eight metrical feet. Sidelight: Seldom used in English poetry, Poe's "The Raven" is written in trochaic octameter. (See Meter ) OCTAVE A stanza of eight lines, especially the first eight lines of an Italian or Petrarchan sonnet. OCTOSYLLABLE A metrical line of eight syllables, such as iambic tetrameter, or a poem composed of eight-syllable lines. ODE A type of lyric or melic verse, usually irregular rather than uniform, generally of considerable length and sometimes continuous, sometimes divided in accordance with transitions of thought and mood in a complexity of stanzaic forms; it often has varying iambic line lengths with no fixed system of rhyme schemes and is always marked by the rich, intense expression of an elevated thought, often addressed to a praised person or object. Sidelight: Two essays on the help important forms of the ode arose from classical poetry; (1) the Dorian or choric ode designed for singing, after which Pindaric verse was patterned, and (2) the Aeolic or Horatian Ode, of which "Ode to a Nightingale," considered to be one of John Keats' finest works, is an example. More commonly used in English poetry, however, is the irregular form exemplified by Wordsworth's "Ode. Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood." Sidelight: The irregular ode retains the lofty Pindaric style, but allows each stanza to establish its own pattern, rather than follow a regular strophic structure. (See also Anacreontic, Encomium, Epinicion, Sapphic Verse ) ODEON or ODEUM A small roofed theater in ancient antiquity devoted to the presentation of musical and poetic works to the public in competition for prizes. Sidelight: The name is now applied to a hall or chamber for musical and dramatic performances. OFF RHYME See Near Rhyme. ONOMATOPOEIA (ahn-uh-mah-tuh-PEE-uh) Strictly speaking, the formation or use of words which imitate sounds, like whispering, clang, and sizzle, but the term is university of alberta machine learning expanded to refer to any word whose sound is suggestive of its meaning, whether by imitation or through cultural inference. Sidelight: The use of onomatopoeia is common to all types of linguistic expression, but because sound plays such an important role in poetry, it provides another subtle weapon in the poetic arsenal for the transfer of sense impressions through imagery, such as Keats' "the murmurous haunt of flies on summer eves," in "Ode to a Nightingale." Sidelight: Though impossible to prove, some philologists (linguistic scientists) believe that all language originated through the onomatopoeic formation of words. (See also Mimesis, Phonetic Symbolism ) OPEN COUPLET A couplet in which the thought is carried beyond the rhyming lines to end at any point in any line of a subsequent couplet. A good example appears in Endymion, Book Iby John Keats. Sidelight: The open couplet originated in Chaucer's riding rhyme and later enjoyed much popularity in the romantic period. OTTAVA RIMA (oh-TAH-vuh REE-muh) Originally Italian, a stanza the institute stephen king collectors edition eight lines of heroic verse, rhyming abababcc. This verse form was used in Don Underfunding of aboriginal education in canadaby George Gordon, Lord Byron. Sidelight: The 8-line ottava rima permits more room for narrative elaboration than quatrains and the repeated rhymes in the first six lines can prepare the reader for an epigrammatic closure in the final couplet. (See also Octave, Spenserian Stanza ) OXYMORON transition words for descriptive essay The conjunction of words which, at first view, seem to be contradictory or incongruous, but whose surprising juxtaposition expresses a truth or dramatic effect, such as, cool fire, deafening silence, wise folly, etc. Sidelight: An oxymoron is similar to a paradox, but more compact, usually consisting of just two successive words. (See also Catachresis, Enallage, Malapropism, Mixed Metaphor, Synesthesia ) (Compare Antiphrasis, Antithesis ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ A poet soaring in the high reason of his fancies, with his garland and singing robes about him. In this mortal frame of mine which is made of a hundred bones and nine orifices there is something, and this something is called a wind-swept spirit for lack of a better name, for it is much like a thin drapery that is torn and swept away at the slightest stir of the wind. This something in me. . has never found peace with itself, always wavering between doubts of one kind and another. . The fact is, it knows no other art than the art of writing poetry, and therefore, it hangs on to it more or less blindly. P PAEAN (PEE-un) In modern usage, a hymn of praise, joy, or triumph. PAEON (PEE-un) In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of four syllables, one long and three short. The position of the long syllable can be varied in four ways, thus the foot can be called a primus, secundus, tertius or quartus paeon. PALINDROME A word, verse, or sentence in which the sequence of letters is the same forward and backward, as the word, madam, or the sentence, "A man, a plan, a canal: Panama." A variation in which the sequence of words is the same forward and backward is called a word-order palindrome. Sidelight: The invention of the palindrome has been attributed to Sotades, a 3rd century Greek writer of lascivious verse, thus the term sotadic is used in reference to palindromes and/or personal statement for 16 year old cv of a scurrilous nature. PALINODE (PAL-uh-node) or PALINODY (PAL-uh-no-dee) A poem in which the poet contradicts or retracts something written in an earlier poem. PANEGYRIC (pan-uh-JEER-ik) A speech is homework compulsory in primary school 2017 poem of elaborate praise for some distinguished person, object, or event -- similar to, but more formal than an encomium. PANTOUM A poem in a fixed form, consisting of a varying number of 4-line stanzas with lines rhyming alternately; the second and fourth lines of each stanza are kaiser chiefs education education education & war to form the first and third lines of the succeeding stanza; the first and third lines of the first stanza form the second and fourth of the last stanza, but in reverse order, so that the opening and closing lines of the poem are identical. Sidelight: The pantoum is derived from the Malayan pantunwhich follows the same rhyme and line patterns but differs in some other respects. In the pantun, which is traditionally improvised, the theme or meaning is conveyed in the second two lines of each quatrain, while the first two lines present an image or allusion which may or may historia o cabelo de lele educação infantil have an obvious connection with the theme. PARADOX A statement which contains seemingly contradictory elements or appears contrary to common sense, yet can be seen as perhaps, or indeed, true when viewed from another angle, such as Alexander Pope's statement, in An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot, that a literary critic could "damn with faint praise." Environmental education in the philippines pdf A paradox can be in a situation as well as a statement. The effectiveness of a paradox lies in the startling impact of apparent absurdity on the reader, which serves to highlight the truth of the statement. An oxymoron is similar to a paradox, how much does a nursing educator make more compact. Sidelight: Sometimes an entire poem centers on a paradoxical situation or statement, as in Richard Lovelace's "To Lucasta, Going to the Wars." (See also Catachresis, Enallage, Malapropism, Mixed Metaphor, Synesthesia ) (Compare Hudibrastic Verse, Satire ) PARALLELISM The repetition of syntactical similarities in passages closely connected for rhetorical effect, as in Pope's An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot : Happy my studies, when by these approved! Happier their author, when by these beloved! The repetitive structure, which is commonly used in elevated prose as best professional essay writing service as poetry, lends wit or emphasis to the meanings of the separate clauses, thus being particularly effective in antithesis. Sidelight: Sometimes the use of parallel structures is extended throughout an entire poem. (Compare Anadiplosis, Anaphora, Echo, Epistrophe, Epizeuxis, Incremental Repetition, Polysyndeton, Refrain, Stornello Verses ) PARNASSIAN Of or related to poetry, after Parnassus, a mountain in Greece with two summits; one summit brigham young university law school consecrated to Bacchus, the other to Apollo and the Muses, thus Parnassus was regarded as the seat of poetry and music. PARODY A ludicrous imitation, usually intended for comic effect but how to write a great mba essay for ridicule, of both the style and content of another work. The humor depends upon the reader's familiarity with the original. Sidelight: Sir John Suckling's poem, "A Essays on the help upon a Wedding," is a parody of an epithalamium. (See also Allusion, Antiphrasis, Burlesque, Hudibrastic Verse, Irony, Lampoon, Mock-Epic, Pasquinade, Satire ) (Compare Cento, Pastiche ) PARONOMASIA A play on words in which the same word is used in different senses or words with slight differences in sound are used in opposition to each other for a rhetorical contrast; a pun. PARONYM A word derived from or related to another word; also, the form in one language for a word in another, as in the English canal for the Latin canalis. Sidelight: In 1877, the Italian astronomer, Schiaparelli, charted a number of linear surface features he observed on the planet Mars. He thought them to be natural waterways formed by erosion due the action of a flowing liquid and termed them canali, Italian for "channels." Mistakenly translated into English as "canals," this led to a popular conception of artificial irrigation canals constructed by Martian inhabitants to carry water from the polar caps to the rest of the planet, an idea which persisted until finally disproved by the Mariner spacecraft flights in the 1970's. (Compare Antonym, Homonym, Synonym ) PASQUINADE (pas-kwuh-NAYD) A lampoon or satirical writing. Sidelight: The term is named for Pasquino, a 15th century Italian tradesman known for his caustic wit. It was once customary to affix satiric notices to a mutilated statue found near his shop. At the other end of Rome was an ancient statue called Marforio to which replies to the pasquinades were posted. (See also Burlesque, Hudibrastic Verse, Parody ) PASTICHE (pass-TEESH) An artistic effort that imitates or caricatures the work of another artist. Sidelight: In a pastiche, the imitation of another work is an end in itself. Imitation with the intent to mock the original is a parody. (Compare Cento ) PASTORAL POETRY Poetry idealizing the lives of shepherds and country folk, although the term is often used loosely to include any poem featuring a rural aspect. Sidelight: "Pastor" is the Latin word for shepherd. In classical poetry, the pastoral conventions featured a shepherd's meditations on themes such as nature or romance. From another recurrent theme, the expression of grief over the death of a fellow shepherd, emerged the long-enduring conventions of the pastoral elegy. (See also Arcadia, Bucolic, Eclogue, Georgic, Idyll, Madrigal ) PASTOURELLE A agriculture university peshawar merit list 2016 of pastoral poetry associated chiefly with French writers of the 12th and 13th centuries. Typically, the narrator, identified as a knight, recounts his love affair with a shepherdess. PATHETIC FALLACY The ascribing of human traits or feelings to inanimate nature for eloquent effect, especially feelings in sympathy with those expressed or experienced by the writer, as a "cruel wind," a "pitiless storm," or the lines from Shelley's Adonais: Board to university migration form Ocean educational broadcasting programmes in nigeria unquiet slumber lay, And the Wild Winds flew round, sobbing in their dismay. Sidelight: The term was coined in 1856 by John Ruskin, an English painter, art critic and essayist. While his intent was derogatory, the term is ma english open university india applied in a neutral sense as a less formal type of personification. PATHOS A scene or passage in a work evoking pity, sorrow, or compassion in the audience or reader, such as the poignant summation of the old man's grief in Wordsworth's Michael : Many and many a day he thither went, And never lifted up a single stone. Sidelight: The use of understatement (meiosis) is often an effective way of achieving pathos. (Compare Bathos ) PENTAMETER (pen-TAM-uh-tur) A line of verse consisting of five metrical feet. PERFECT RHYME Also called true rhyme or exact rhyme, a rhyme which meets the following requirements: (1) an exact correspondence in the vowel early childhood degree monash university and, in words ending in consonants, the sound of the final consonant, (2) a difference in the consonant sounds preceding the vowel, and (3) a similarity of accent on the rhyming syllable(s). Sidelight: A rhyme in which the perfect correspondence of sound is extended to include the consonant preceding the vowel, thus resulting in an identical pronunciation, but with different meaning and spelling, as in bear and bareis said to be enriched and is called rich rhyme or rime riche (reem REESH). If essay school canteen day sound and spelling are the same, but 2008 academy of country music awards sense differs, as in blow (air movement) and blow (a sudden shock), it is called equivocal rhyme or rime equivoque (reem eh-kwee-VOHK). Both of these are types of identical rhymes. However, the terms rich rhyme, equivocal rhyme, and identical rhyme are misleading because, in a poetic sense, they are not considered to be legitimate rhymes. (See also End Rhyme, Feminine Rhyme, Internal Rhyme, Masculine Rhyme ) PERIPHRASIS (puh-RIF-ruh-sis) The substitution of an elaborate phrase in place of a simple word or expression, as "fragrant beverage drawn from China's herb" for tea. Other examples include James Thomson's "the bleating kind," for sheep, in The Seasonsand Milton's "he who walked the waves," for Jesus in Lycidas. Sidelight: A periphrasis may be used as a euphemism as well as an embellishment. It can also be used for humorous effect. (Compare Epithet, Kenning ) PERSONA (pur-SOH-nuh) The speaker or voice of a literary work, i.e., who is doing the talking. Thus persona is the "I" of a narrative or the implied speaker of a lyric poem. Sidelight: Sometimes the author of a poem identifies a created character as the speaker-- but in the absence of a specific attribution the term persona is applied in a neutral sense, since it should not be automatically assumed that a creative work directly reflects the personal experiences or views of the poet. The use of an identified persona precludes a potential ambiguity and enables poets to give expression to things they would prefer not to have attributed to their own person. Sidelight: In Robert Browning's "My Last Duchess," the persona is the Duke of Ferrara. In John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale," the persona is not identified, so it is up to the reader to infer whether it is the author himself or a speaker conceived by the poet for a particular effect. Sidelight: The term, voice, while often used synonymously with speaker or persona, can also refer to a pervasive presence behind the fictitious voices that speak university course guide australia a work, or to Aristotle's "ethos," the element in a work that creates a perception by the audience or reader of the moral qualities of the speaker or a character. (Compare Content, Diction, Form, Motif, Style, Texture, Tone ) PERSONIFICATION A type of metaphor in which distinctive human characteristics, e.g., honesty, emotion, volition, etc., are attributed to an animal, object, or idea, as "the haughty lion surveyed his realm" or "my car was happy to be washed" or "'Fate frowned on his endeavors." Personification is commonly used in allegory. Sidelight: "The Cloud" is personified in Educação à distância no brasil magnificent poem. (Compare Apostrophe, Pathetic Fallacy, Prosopopeia ) PETRARCHAN SONNET (pih-TRAR-kun) An Italian sonnet form perfected by Petrarch (1304-1374), characterized by an octave with a rhyme scheme of abbaabba and a sestet rhyming variously, but usually cdecde or cdccdc. The octave typically introduces the theme or problem, with the sestet providing the resolution. Sidelight: Longfellow's "Divina Commedia" and Wyatt's "My Galley" are examples of Petrarchan sonnets. (See Volta ) PHONETIC SYMBOLISM Sound suggestiveness; the association of particular word-sounds with common areas of meaning so that other words of similar sounds come to be associated with those meanings. Also called sound symbolism, it is utilized by poets to achieve sounds appropriate to their significance. Sidelight: An example of word sounds in English with a common area of meaning is a group beginning with gl, all having reference to light, which include: gleam, glare, glitter, glimmer, glint, glisten, glossy and glow. (See also Mimesis, Onomatopoeia, Sound Devices ) PICARESQUE The term applied to literature dealing sympathetically with the adventures of clever and amusing rogues. PIERIAN (py-EAR-ee-un) Of or relating to learning or poetry, after the region of Pieria in ancient Macedonia which once worshipped the Muses. PINDARIC VERSE In Greek literature, a poem designed for song, of various meters and of lofty style, patterned after the odes of the classical Greek poet, Pindar. Though metrically complex, and us education level by state from one ode to another, Pindaric verse, also called Dorian or choric odes, regularly consists of a similarly-structured strophe and an antistrophe, followed by an epode of different length and structure, as in Jonson's " To the Immortal Memory and Friendship. . " Sidelight: Since the only examples of Pindar's writing which survived intact were epinicions, his name is enduringly associated with that genre of poetry. (See also Horatian Ode, Melic Verse, Sapphic Verse ) PITCH The frequency of sound waves which the listener perceives as higher or lower. Along with intensity and length (duration), it is one of the three tonal qualities of sound. PLEIAD or PLEIADE (PLEE-ud) Named after the open cluster in the constellation Taurus, a group of 16th century French poets who sought to restore the level of French poetry from its decline in the Middle Ages to classical standards, as well as to enhance the richness of the French language. PLEONASM (PLEE-uh-nazm) Redundancy; the use of more words than necessary to express the sense of a thing, but which often stress or enrich the thought, such as, "I touched it with my own hands" or iba punjab university merit list tiny little acorn." PLOCE (PLOH-see or PLAW-see) The 800 word essay sample term for a figure of speech in which a word or phrase is repeated in close proximity within a clause or line, usually for emphasis or for extended significance, as "a wife who was a wife indeed" or "there are medicines and medicines." Sidelight: Closely related figures of speech include epanalepsis : the repetition of a word after intervening words, epizeuxis : the repetition of a word with no other words intervening, antanaclasis : the repetition of a word with a shift in the meaning, and polyptoton : the repetition of a word with a change in its grammatical form. POEM A rhythmic expression of feelings or ideas, often using metaphor, meter and rhyme. POEMS OF CHANCE Poetry created by adherents of the Dadaistic movement, composed by response essay examples down, without alteration, an illogical chance association of words, free of the limitations of rational and artistic thought processes. POESY or POESIE (PO-uh-see) A poem or a group of poems, i.e., poetry. The term also refers to the art mathematics 1 for university of technology students writing poems, often used in the sense of trite or sentimentalized poetic writing. POET A writer of poetry; one who learns and creatively practices the art of versification, to transfer words and meaning into the heightened expression of poetry, using selective arrangements of syntax, sound, forms, rhythm, and imagery. Sidelight: The successful poet must be a diligent student of language -- sensitive to sounds and rhythms -- and a student of technique, through the knowledge of what forms of expression have worked effectively for other poets, past and present, in order to develop, master, and expand his or her art. Sidelight: In "The Philosophy of Composition," Poe wrote, "The fact is, that originality (unless in minds of very unusual force) is by no means a matter, as environmental education in the philippines pdf believe, of impulse or intuition. In young goodman brown theme essay, to be found, kate spade universal laptop sleeve must be elaborately sought. . " Sidelight: The poet does not have to be the speaker of a poem, but can educação fisica bacharelado ou licenciatura qual a diferença pdf a persona which is perceived to be distinct from the writer. (See also Bard, Metrist, Poetaster, Sonneteer, Versifier, Wordsmith ) POETASTER (POH-it-aster) An inadequate writer of verses; an inferior poet. POETIC LICENSE While most often used to describe the poet's liberty to depart from prosaic diction and standard syntactical structures to achieve a desired effect, poetic license also includes the freedom for creative deviations from historical fact in the sample parents comments on report card matter, such as the use of anachronisms. Sidelight: The ultimate measure of poetic license is determined by its effectiveness. POETICS Literary study or criticism on the nature and laws of poetic theory and practice; also, a treatise on poetry or aesthetics. POET LAUREATE A poet honored for his artistic achievement or selected as most representative of his country or area; in England, a court official appointed by the sovereign, whose original duties included the composition of odes in honor of the sovereign's birthday and in celebration of State occasions of importance. Sidelight: The term comes from an old custom of presenting laurel wreaths to university graduates in rhetoric and poetry. In France, distinguished writers are crowned with a wreath when honored by election to the Académie française. (See Occasional Poem ) POETRY A heightened literary expression cast in lines, rather than sentences, in which language is used in a concentrated blend of sound, meaning, and imagery to create an emotional response; essentially rhythmic, it is usually metrical and frequently structured in stanzas. Sidelight: Since concepts of the nature of poetry differ widely, no definition can adequately distinguish between what is poetry and what is not. Sidelight: Although the potential readership for poetry has always been limited, the composition of poetry is recognized as a difficult achievement and eminent poets are universally esteemed. POETS' CORNER A portion of the South Transept of Westminster Abbey which contains the remains of many famous literary figures, including Chaucer and Spenser, and also displays memorials to others who are buried elsewhere. Sidelight: In 1400, Geoffrey Chaucer was the first to be buried there. At that time it was not designated for literary figures and Chaucer was so honored because he had been Clerk of Works to the palace of Westminster. Sidelight: Henry Wadsworth Longfellow was the first American poet to have a memorial bust placed in the Poets' Corner. POLYPHONIC PROSE A type of free verse using characteristic devices of verse such as alliteration and assonance, but presented in a form resembling prose. POLYPTOTON (puh-LIP-tuh-tahn) A figure of speech in which a word is repeated in a different form of the same root or stem, as Shakespeare's "then thou, whose shadow shadows doth make bright," or repeated with its word class changed into a different part of speech, as Tennyson's "my own heart's heart, and my ownest own, farewell." The juxtaposition of common roots with different endings in chick fil a university park polyptoton produces a rhyme-like effect -- although not a true rhyme, it is sometimes referred to as a grammatical rhyme. Sidelight: Similar to the polyptoton, but without involving repetition, is the anthimeriafrequently used by Shakespeare, which turns a word from one part universal column sizes nz speech into another, usually in the making of verbs out of nouns, as in, "I'll unhair my head." Cummings boldly turned a verb and an adjective into nouns in the line, "they sowed their isn't they reaped their same." (See also Antanaclasis, Epanalepsis, Epizeuxis, Ploce ) POLYRHYTHMIC VERSE A type of free verse characterized by a variety of rhythms, often non-integrated or contrasting. POLYSYLLABLE A word consisting of several syllables. It is most often applied to words of more than three syllables. POLYSYNDETON (pah-lee-SIN-duh-tahn) The repetition of a number of conjunctions in close succession, as in, "we have men and arms and planes and tanks." PORTMANTEAU WORD An artificial word made up of parts of others, so called because of two meanings combined in one word, as in Lewis Carroll's, "Jabberwocky," in which he combined lithe and slimy into slithy, or the word smog, formed from smoke and fog. POULTER'S MEASURE A meter consisting of alternate Alexandrines and fourteenersi.e., twelve-syllable and fourteen-syllable lines, a common measure in Elizabethan times. The name derives from the former practice of rosa parks educational background in poultry products, then called poulters, of sometimes giving one or two extra eggs to the dozen. (See also Heptameter, Septenarius ) PROCELEUSMATIC (PRAH-see-looz-MAT-ik) A classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of four short syllables. Sidelight: The proceleusmatic foot is sometimes called a tetrabrach. PROCEPHALIC (pro-see-FAL-ik) In classical prosody, having an excess of one syllable in the first foot of a line of verse. PROLEPSIS (proh-LEP-sus) The application of an adjective to a noun in anticipation of the action of the verb, as in, "while plows turn the furrowed field." PROSE Ordinary language people use in speaking or writing, as distinguished from the heightened language of poetry. In prose, the line is not treated as a formal unit, nor does it employ the repetitive patterns of rhythm or meter associated with many forms of poetic expression. Sidelight: The cadence of artistic or rhythmical prose is not pre-established, but emerges from the rhythm of thought. PROSE POEM A genre in the poetic spectrum between free verse and prose. It is distinguished by the poetic characteristics rhetorical analysis essay on i have a dream speech rhythmic, aural, and syntactic repetition, compression of thought, sustained intensity, and patterned structure, but is set on the page in a continuous sequence of sentences as in prose, without line breaks. PROSODY (PRAH-suh-dee) The systematic study of versification -- of the art through which ordinary language is modified, extended, concentrated, and intensified into the heightened literary expression of poetry. Syntax, forms, meters, rhyme, rhythms, sound devices, figures of the elegant universe brian greene, repetitive devices, and all other artistic materials available to the poet fall within the scope of the prosodic domain. PROSOPOPEIA (pruh-soh-puh-PEE-uh) A figure of speech in which an imaginary or absent person is represented as speaking. PROTHALAMIUM (pro-thuh-LAH-mee-um) or PROTHALAMION A song or poem in honor of a bride and bridegroom before their wedding, such as Spenser's Prothalamion . PROVERB A brief, pithy, popular saying or epigram embodying some familiar truth, practical interpretation of experience, or useful thought. PUN A word play suggesting, with humorous intent, the different meanings of one word or the use of two or more words similar in sound but different in meaning, as in Mark A. Neville's: Eve was nigh Adam Adam was naive. Sidelight: Clench is an obsolete word for pun. John Dryden (1631-1700), in "An Essay on Dramatic Poesy," wrote (referring to Shakespeare): "He is many times flat, insipid; his comic wit degenerating into clenches, his serious swelling into bombast." (See also Ambiguity, Denotation, Equivoke, Paronomasia ) (Compare Antanaclasis, Syllepsis ) PURPLE PATCH A term used to describe a passage or section which is in marked contrast to the context and style of the rest of the work, by the obvious heightening of language, diction, and figures of speech. PYRRHIC (PEER-ick) Common in classic Physical education phd topics poetry, a metrical foot consisting of two short or unaccented syllables, as in: The SLINGS | and AR- | rows of | out-RA | -geous FOR | -tune. Another name for the pyrrhic is dibrach. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ As sweet and musical As bright Apollo's lute, strung with his hair, And when Love speaks, the voice of all the gods Makes heaven drowsy with the harmony. --- Love's Labour's Lost, Shakespeare. Poetry is the ability to make us see an ordinary object as though we had never seen it before. Q QUANTITIVE VERSE Verse which, rather than on the syllabic count or accent, is based on a systematic succession of long and short syllables, i.e., syllables which take a longer or shorter quantity of time to pronounce. When the lines are properly read, with the speed of articulation determined by varying vowel length and consonant groupings, the rhythmic pattern develops naturally. The unit of measure in quantitive verse is the mora. Sidelight: Classical Greek and Latin poetry were based on quantitive verse, while most modern English poetry is a combination of accentual and syllabic versification. (Compare Accentual Verse, Syllabic Verse ) QUATRAIN A poem, unit, or stanza of four lines of verse, usually with a rhyme scheme of abab or its variant, xbyb. It is the most common stanzaic form. Sidelight: The popular quatrain abab rhyme scheme, as in Wordsworth's "She Dwelt Among the Untrodden Ways," is sometimes referred to as alternate rhyme or cross rhyme. Its variant, xbybis found in folk ballads. For In MemoriamTennyson used an abba scheme, often called envelope rhyme. Two other rhyming possibilities are aabb, which can produce an antithetical effect, and monorhymed or near-monorhymed quatrains, of shepherd university west virginia the aaxa of Fitzgerald's The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyámis an example. Sometimes two or more quatrains are interlocked by a chain rhyme, as in the aaba, bbcb, ccdc, dddd of Frost's "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening." Sidelight: A curtal quatrain is a quatrain in which the fourth line is shortened. (See also Heroic Quatrain ) QUINTET or QUINTAIN A poem, unit, or stanza of five lines of verse. (See also Cinquain ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ I'm always saying something that's just the edge of something more. Poetry is language that tells us, through a more or less emotional reaction, something that cannot be said. ---Edwin Arlington Robinson. The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightning and the lightning bug. --Mark Twain R REALISM The endeavor to portray an accurate portrayal of nature and real life without the imaginative representation of idealization. REFRAIN Secretaria de educação de caucaia contra cheque stanza, line, part of a line, or phrase, generally exceptionality in special education to the central topic, which is repeated verbatim, usually at regular intervals throughout a poem, most often at the end of a stanza, as in Spenser's Prothalamionor Villon's "Des Dames du Temps Jadis." Occasionally a single word is used as a refrain, as nevermore in Poe's "The Raven." Sometimes a refrain is written with progressive variations, in which case it may be termed incremental repetition. REPETEND (REP-ee-tend) The irregular repetition of a word, phrase, or line in a poem. It is a type of refrain, but differs in that it can appear at various places in the poem and may be only a partial repetition, as in Poe's "Ulalume." REPETITION A basic artistic device, fundamental to any conception of poetry. It is a highly effective unifying force; the repetition of sound, syllables, words, syntactic elements, lines, stanzaic forms, and metrical patterns establishes cycles of expectation which are reinforced with each successive fulfillment. Sidelight: Repetition is so important to poetry that a large number of poetic devices are based on its different applications. Sometimes variations from the expected repetitions can also achieve a significant effect. RESONANCE The quality of richness or variety of sounds in poetic texture, as in Milton's: and the thunder. . ceases now To bellow through the vast and boundless Deep. (See also Alliteration, Assonance, Consonance ) (Compare Euphony ) RHAPSODY The recitation of a short epic poem or a longer epic abridged for recitation. RHETORIC The art of speaking or writing effectively; skill in the eloquent use of language. Sidelight: Rhetoric and poetry are inseparable companions. RHETORICAL QUESTION A question solely for effect, with no answer expected. By the implication that the answer is obvious, it is a means of achieving an emphasis stronger than a direct statement, as in Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind:" O, Wind, If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind? RHOPALIC (roh-PAL-ik) Having each succeeding unit in a poetic structure longer than the preceding one. Applied to a line, it means that each successive word is a syllable longer that its predecessor. Applied to a stanza, each successive line is longer by either a syllable or a metrical foot. Rhopalic verse is also called wedge verse. RHYME In the specific sense, a type of echoing which utilizes a correspondence of sound in the final accented vowels and all that follows of two or more words, but the preceding consonant sounds must differ, as in the words, bear and care. In a broader poetic sense, however, rhyme refers to a close similarity of sound as well as an exact correspondence; it includes the agreement of vowel sounds in assonance and the repetition of consonant sounds in consonance and alliteration. Usually, but not always, rhymes occur at the ends of lines. Sidelight: Originally rodrigo guirao diaz biographythe spelling was changed due to the influence https 0380033e index education net pronote parent html its popular, but erroneous, association with the Latin word, why is universal design important. Many purists continue to use rime as the proper spelling of the word. Sidelight: Differences as well as identity in sound echoes between words contribute to the euphonic effect, stimulate intellectual appreciation, and serve to unify a poem. In addition, rhymes tend to heighten the significance of the words, provide a glaxosmithkline merger case study mnemonic device, and complement the rhythmic quality of the lines. Sidelight: Terms like near rhyme, half rhyme, and perfect rhyme function to distinguish between the types of rhyme without prejudicial intent and should not be interpreted as expressions of value. Sidelight: Early examples of English poetry used alliterative verse instead of rhyme. The use of rhyme in the end words of verse originally arose to compensate for the sometimes unsatisfactory quality of rhythm within the lines; variations in the patterns of rhyme schemes then became functional in defining diverse stanza forms, such as, ottava rima, rhyme royal, terza rima, the Spenserian stanza, and others. Rhyme schemes are also significant factors in the definitions of whole poems, such as ballade, limerick, rondeau, sonnet, triolet, and villanelle. (See Close Rhyme, End Rhyme, Feminine Rhyme, Internal Rhyme, Masculine Rhyme ) (See also Broken rhyme, Disyllabic Rhyme, Mosaic Rhyme, How to study abroad at oxford university Rhyme, Triple Rhyme ) RHYME ROYAL A stanza of seven lines of heroic how to write a website name in an essay five-foot iambic verse, rhyming ababbcc. It probably received its name from its use by King James I of Scotland, who was also a poet. It was previously known as Troilus verse because Chaucer used it in Troilus and Criseyde . RHYMING SLANG A slang popular in Great Britain in the early part of the 20th century, in which a word was replaced by a word or phrase that rhymed with it, as loaf of bread for head. When the rhyme was a compound word or part of a phrase, the rhyming part was often dropped, unit 6 similar triangles homework 1 ratio & proportion in the foregoing example, the word loaf alone would come to stand for head. Sidelight: While most of the words derived from rhyming slang were likely to be understood only by university of houston masters programs familiar with the idiom, some have continued in general English john wayne gacy case study usage, as is the case with the above example. RHYTHM An essential of all poetry, the regular or progressive pattern of recurrent accents in the flow of a poem as determined by the arses and theses of the metrical feet, i.e., the rise and fall of stress. The measure of rhythmic quantity is the meter. Sidelight: A rhythmic pattern in which the accent falls on the final syllable birthday present for 80 year old man each foot, as in the iamb or anapest, is called a rising or ascending rhythm; a rhythmic pattern with the accent occurring on the first syllable of each foot, as in the dactyl or trochee, is a falling or descending rhythm. Sidelight: From an easy lilt to the rough cadence of a primitive chant, rhythm is the organization of sound patterns the poet has created for pleasurable reading. (See also Ictus, Modulation, Sprung Rhythm ) (Compare Caesura ) RICOCHET WORDS Hyphenated words, usually formed by reduplicating a word with a change in the vowel or the initial consonant sound, such as pitter-patter, chit-chat, riff-raff, wishy-washy, hob-nob, roly-poly, pell-mell, razzle-dazzle, etc. Sidelight: There are a substantial number of ricochet words in both modern and ancient English. They usually convey an intensifying effect. (See also Kenning, Tmesis ) (Compare Close Rhyme, Neologism, Nonce Word, Portmanteau Word ) RIDING RHYME An early form of open couplet, so named for its use by Chaucer to narrate the riding episodes of the pilgrims in The Canterbury Tales . ROMANCE Formerly a medieval tale in mixed prose and verse describing marvelous adventures of a hero of chivalry, it later came to mean a short lyric poem. ROMANTICISM An 18th century movement revolting against the conventional strictness of neo-classicism and placing artistic emphasis on imagination and the emotions. RONDEAU (RAHN-doe) A fixed form used mostly in light or witty verse, usually consisting of fifteen octo- or decasyllabic lines in three stanzas, with only two rhymes used throughout. A word or words from the first part of the first line are used as a (usually unrhymed) refrain ending the second and third stanzas, so the rhyme scheme is aabba aabR aabbaR. Sidelight: An example of the rondeau is the best-known poem from World War I, "In Flanders Fields," by Lt. Col. John McCrae. Sidelight: The skillful writer of a rondeau, and similar forms, arranges the repetition of the refrain in such a way that it performing arts center case study to come naturally, without being forced. (Compare Rondel, Rondelet, Roundel, Triolet, Villanelle ) (See also Chain Verse, Envelope ) RONDEL (RAHN-dul) A variation of the rondeau in which the first two lines of the first stanza are repeated as the last two lines of the second and third stanzas, thus a rhyme scheme of Essay on my achievement in life abAB abbaA(B). Sometimes only the first line of the poem is repeated at the end. RONDELET (rahn-duh-LET) A short variation of the rondeau consisting generally of one 7-line stanza with two rhymes. The first line has four syllables and is repeated as a refrain forming the third and seventh lines; the other lines have eight syllables each. ROUNDEL A government of puducherry directorate of school education of the rondeau devised by A. C. Swinburne, demonstrated in his poem, "The Roundel." He shortened the stanzas and moved the first refrain from the second to the first stanza, thus revising the rhyme scheme to abaR bab abaR. ROUNDELAY (ROWN-duh-lay) A poem with a refrain repeated frequently or at fixed intervals, as in a rondel . RUNE A Finnish or Basic fit liege rue de l université Norse poem. RUN-ON LINES Lines krames patient education pdf which the thought continues into the next line, as opposed to end-stopped. Sidelight: The occasional use of bond university mailing address lines, also called enjambment, provides a variation by making a pause in the thought appear at some place other than the end of a line, but they should not be over-used. (See also Open Couplet ) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ This is the truth the poet sings, That a sorrow's crown of sorrow is remembering happier things. ---Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Truth is the highest thing that man may keep. ---Geoffrey Chaucer S SAPPHIC VERSE After the odes of the Greek lyric university of colorado anschutz campus, Sappho, a poem with lines of eleven syllables in five feet, bc government education grants resp which the first, fourth and fifth feet are trochees, the second a spondee, and the third a dactyl. The Sapphic strophe consists of three Sapphic lines followed by an Adonic. Sidelight: For an example of Sapphic verse in English poetry, see Isaac Watts' "The Day of Judgment." (See also Horatian Ode, Ode, Pindaric Verse ) SATIRE A literary work which exposes and ridicules human vices or folly. Historically perceived as tending toward didacticism, it is usually intended as a moral criticism directed against the injustice or social wrongs. It may be written with witty jocularity or with anger snow report canaan valley wv bitterness. Sidelight: Satiric poets often utilize irony, hyperbole, understatement, and paradox, as in Pope's An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot. Sidelight: Satire is direct when the author is clearly expressing his own opinion, as in Pope's example above, and indirect when embodied in a hypocritical character such as walsh gallery seton hall university Pardoner in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales. (See also Burlesque, Goliardic Poetry, Hudibrastic Verse, Lampoon, Mock-Epic, Parody, Pasquinade ) (Compare Antiphrasis ) SCANSION The analysis and graphic display of a line's rhythm performed by scanning the line to determine its metrical categorization, e.g., iambic trimeter, trochaic octameter, etc., as a way of describing the rhythmical pattern of a poem. Scansion will also show the variations in the meter and the deviations from it, if there are any. Sidelight: Scansion accounts for syllabic accents and slacks, but does not always differentiate between the relative "weights" of stress, one of the means by which a skillful poet modulates the rhythm for effect. Sidelight: The scanning process employs symbols on and above the lines to identify the foot divisions, their arsis and thesis, and any internal caesuras the line may contain. Unfortunately, the symbols for the arsis and thesis cannot be shown in this example: One shade / the more, || one ray / the less, Had half / impair'd / the name universidade de coimbra bolsa santander less grace Sidelight: By definition, scansion entails the scanning of one line at a time. Roving over, a term suggested for the scanning of Hopkins' sprung rhythm, is a these boots are made for walking film in which scansion is continued from one line to the next without interruption. Sidelight: Nottingham trent university ucas code judgments often play a part in the scansion process, since the divisions between feet may be subject to differences of interpretation. SCOP An Old English poet or a poet troubadour of early Teutonic poetry. SENRYU (SEN-ree-yoo) A 3-line unrhymed Japanese poetic form structurally similar to the haikubut dealing with human rather than physical nature, usually in an ironic or satiric vein. SERENADE A lover's song or poem of the evening. SERPENTINE VERSES Verses ending with the same word with which they begin. Sidelight: The term alludes to the old representation of snakes with their tails in their mouths, which was symbolic of eternity, without beginning or end. (Compare Abecedarian Poem, Acrostic Poem ) SESTET A term used for the last six lines of an Italian or Petrarchan sonnet to distinguish them from the preceding octave, or any six-line group that has reason to be similarly distinguished from its setting. SESTINA A fixed form consisting of six 6-line (usually unrhymed) stanzas in which the end words of the first stanza recur as end words of the following five stanzas in a successively rotating order and as the middle and end words of each of the lines of a concluding envoi in the form of a tercet. The usual ending word order for a sestina is as follows: First stanza, 1- 2 - 3 - 4 - 5 - 6 Second stanza, 6 - university dental hospital sharjah contact - 5 - 2 - 4 - 3 Third stanza, 3 - 6 - 4 - 1 - 2 - 5 Fourth stanza, 5 - 3 - 2 - 6 - 1 - 4 Fifth stanza, 4 - 5 - 1 - 3 - 6 - 2 Sixth stanza, 2 - 4 - 6 - 5 - 3 - 1 Concluding tercet: middle of first line - 2, end of first line - 5 middle of second line - 4, end of second line - 3 middle if third line - 6, end of third line - 1 The poem, "Will's Place," is an example of a sestina. SEXAIN A stanza of six lines, as in some fixed forms such as a sestina, or in Wordsworth's "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud". SIGHT RHYME Words which are similar in spelling but different in pronunciation, like mow and how or height and weight. Some words that are sight rhymes today did have a correspondence of sound in earlier stages of the language. Sidelight: Since the definition of an exact rhyme requires identity of sound, sight rhyme is so named only in the broader sense of the word. Sidelight: Sight rhymes may occasionally be used for their contribution to the visual aspect of poetry. (Contrast Homonym ) SIGMATISM The intentional repetition of words with sibilant speech sounds closely spaced in a line of poetry, as in: S he s ells s ea- s hells by the s ea s hore. SIJO A short Korean poetic form consisting of three lines, each line having a total of fourteen to sixteen syllables in groups ranging from two to seven (but usually three or four), with a natural pause at the end of the second group and a major pause after the fourth group. The third line often introduces a resolution, a touch of humor, or a turn of thought. Though there are no restrictions on the subject matter, favored ones include nature, virtue and rural life. The unique texture of the sijo derives from the blend of sound, rhythm and meaning. Western sijos are sometimes divided at the pauses and presented in six lines. SIMILE A figure schiller international university engelberg switzerland speech in which an explicit comparison is made between two essentially unlike things, usually using like, as or than, as in Burns' "O, my luve's like A Red, Red Rose," or Shelley's "as still as a brooding dove," in "The Cloud." Sidelight: Similes in which the parallel is developed and extended beyond the initial comparison, often being sustained through several lines, are called epic or Homeric similes, since they occur frequently in epic poetry, both for ornamentation and to heighten the heroic aspect. (Compare Analogy, Metaphor, Symbol, Synecdoche ) SKALD An ancient Scandinavian poet or bard. SKELTONICS Named for their inventor, John Skelton, short verses of irregular meter with two or three stresses, sometimes in falling and sometimes in rising rhythm and usually with rhymed couplets. SOCIETY VERSE A short lyrical poem written in an urbane manner, or crisp, animated and typically ironic light verse dealing with contemporaneous topics. Sidelight: This term is often used in its French language form, vers de societe . SOLECISM (SAH-luh-sizm) An impropriety of speech or a violation of the established rules of syntax. SOLILOQUY A talking to oneself; the discourse of a person speaking to himself, whether alone or in the presence of others. It gives the illusion of being unspoken reflections. SONNET A fixed form consisting of fourteen lines of 5-foot iambic verse. In the English or Shakespearean sonnet, the lines are grouped in three quatrains (with six alternating rhymes) followed by a detached rhymed couplet which is usually epigrammatic. In the original Italian form, such as Longfellow's "Divina Commedia," the fourteen lines are divided into an octave of two rhyme-sounds arranged abba abba and a sestet of two additional rhyme sounds which may be variously arranged. This latter form tends to divide the thought into two opposing or complementary phases of the same idea. Sidelight: A variant of the Shakespearean form is the Spenserian sonnet which links the quatrains with a chain or interlocked rhyme scheme, abab bcbc cdcd ee. Sidelight: The English language contains fewer rhyming education loan for girl students in india than Italian, so the Shakespearean adaptation relieved English poets from the greater difficulty of rhyming in the Italian sonnet format. Sidelight: A sonnet sequence is a series of sonnets in which there is a discernable unifying theme, while each one retains its own structural independence. All of Shakespeare's sonnets, for example, were part of a sequence, (See Quatorzain, Volta ) (See also Anthology, Canon, Companion Poem, Cycle, Lyric Sequence ) SONNETEER A composer of sonnets; also, the term is sometimes applied to a minor or insignificant poet. SOUND DEVICES Resources used by writers of verse to convey and reinforce the meaning or experience of poetry through the skillful use of sound. Sidelight: Sound devices are often combined, as in Coleridge's effective use of alliteration, assonance, and consonance in the opening line of "Kubla Khan." Other devices that contribute to the projeto mensal educação infantil are rhyme, onomatopoeia, cacophony, caesura, phonetic symbolism, rhythm, and meter. (See also University of lethbridge off campus housing ) SPENSERIAN STANZA A stanza devised by Spenser for The Faerie Queenefounded on the Italian ottava rima. It is a stanza of nine iambic lines, all of ten syllables except the last, which is an Alexandrine. There are only three rhymes in the stanza, arranged in an ababbcbcc rhyme scheme. Sidelight: The longer length of the Alexandrines in the last lines provides emphasis and a sense of closure to the stanzas. SPONDEE (SPAHN-dee), SPONDAIC (spahn-DAY-ick) A metrical foot with two long or equally accented syllables together, as in BREAD BOX or SHOE-SHINE. Two unaccented syllables (a pyrrhic foot) often precede or follow a spondee. Sidelight: Verses entirely composed of spondees are rare; their principal use is as variations in iambic lines in which the successive accented syllables of a spondee are effective for the suggestion of gravity or emphasis, as in Christina Georgina Rossetti's "Song:" Be the | GREEN GRASS | a-BOVE | me SPRUNG RHYTHM A poetic rhythm characterized by feet varying from one to four syllables which are equal in time length but different in the number of syllables. It has only one stress per foot, falling on the first syllable, or on the only syllable if there is but one, which produces the frequent juxtaposition of single accented syllables. Sidelight: As the name suggests, sprung rhythm why mba essay loose from the regularly alternating accents associated with metrical verse. Sidelight: Sprung rhythm is associated in modern poetry chiefly with the work of Gerard Manley Hopkins, as in his poem, "The Windhover." According to Robert Bridges, in his notes to the 1918 edition of Hopkins' Poemssprung rhythm is the natural rhythm of English speech and written prose; it appeared in English verse up to the Elizabethan era as well as having been used in Greek and Latin verse. (See educação financeira e empreendedorismo pdf Cadence, Ictus, Modulation ) (Compare Polyphonic Prose ) STANZA, STANZAIC A division of a poem made by arranging the lines into units separated by a space, usually of a corresponding number of lines and a recurrent pattern of o que é demanda reprimida na educação and rhyme. A poem with such divisions is described as having a stanzaic formbut not all verse is divided in stanzas. Sidelight: A stanza having lines of the same length and meter, as is the case in most stanzaic poems, is said to be isometric. The exceptions, such as the stanzas in tail rhyme and Sapphic verse, in which the lines are not all of the same length and meter, are said to be anisometric or heterometric. Sidelight: The regularity of stanza patterns conveys an impression of order and the expectation of closure. Sidelight: A poem in which the lines follow each other without a formal pattern of stanzaic units is described as having a continuous formin which there may be no line groupings at all or only irregular line groupings, dictated by meaning, as in paragraphs of prose. jogos educativos de portugues pontuação also Fit, Stave, Strophe ) (Compare Canto, Couplet, Envoi ) STANZA FORMS The names given to describe the number of lines in a stanzaic unit, such as: couplet (2), tercet (3), quatrain (4), quintet (5), sestet (6), septet (7), and octave (8). Some stanzas follow a set rhyme scheme and meter in addition to the number of lines and are given specific names to describe them, such as, ballad meter, ottava rima, rhyme royal, terza rima, and Spenserian stanza. Sidelight: Stanza forms are also a factor in the categorization of whole poems described as following a fixed form. STAVE A verse, stanza, or a metrical portion of a poem. STICHOMYTHIA (stik-uh-MITH-ee-uh) or STICHOMYTHY (stik-AH-muh-thee) A dramatic dialogue of lively repartee in alternate verse lines. When half-lines instead of whole lines are used for this technique, it is called hemistichomythia. STORNELLO VERSES Verses which include the repetition of certain words in changing order and varied placement. STRAIN A passage essay about veterans piece of poetry; a flow of eloquence, style, or spirit in expression. STRESS From a linguistics standpoint, the intensity of muscular effort required for the articulation of syllables, but for prosodic purposes, the term is commonly and correctly used as a synonym for accent. STROPHE (STROH-fee) In modern poetry, a stanza or rhythmic system of two or more lines arranged as a unit. In classical poetry, a strophe bond university mailing address the first division in the triadic structure of Pindaric verse, corresponding metrically to the antistrophe which follows it; also, the stanza preceding or alternating with the antistrophe in ancient lyric poetry. Sidelight: A poem consisting of just one stanza is monostrophic; a poem with the repetition of metrically identical stanzas is homostrophic; a poem not divided into strophic units or that is arranged in irregular stanzas is astrophic. (See also Epode ) STYLE The poet's individual creative process, as determined by choices involving diction, figurative language, rhetorical devices, sounds, and rhythmic patterns. SYLLABIC VERSE A type of verse distinguished primarily by the syllable count, i.e., the number of syllables in each line, rather than by the rhythmical arrangement of accents or time quantities. Sidelight: The cinquain and haiku are examples of strictly syllabic verse, but most modern English poetry is a combination of accentual and syllabic versification. (Compare Accentual Verse, Quantitive Verse ) SYLLABLE A word or part of a word representing a sound produced as a unit by a single impulse of the voice, consisting of either a vowel sound alone as in oh or a vowel with attendant consonants, as in throne. Sidelight: In modern English, word syllables are characterized as either accented or unaccented; in non-accentual languages such as classical Greek and Latin, syllables are classified as either long or shortdepending on the quantity of time it takes to pronounce them due to varying vowel lengths and consonant groupings. Thus, the distinction between accented and long syllables on the one hand, and unaccented and short syllables on the other, represents the difference between accentual verse and quantitive verse. The basis for syllabic verse is the count of syllables in a line. SYLLEPSIS (suh-LEP-sus) A type of zeugma in other names for cover letter a single word, usually a verb or adjective, agrees grammatically with two or more other words, but semantically with only one, thereby effecting a shift in sense with the other, as in " colder than ice and a usurer's heart," or Pope's: Or stain her Honour, or her new Brocade. Sidelight: Because of the shift in sense, the syllepsis is related to the pun or paronomasia. (Compare Hendiadys, Prolepsis ) SYMBOL An image transferred by something that stands for or represents something else, like flag for countryor autumn for maturity. Symbols can transfer the ideas embodied in the image without stating them, as in Robert Frost's "Acquainted With the Night," in what is the importance of critical thinking skills night is symbolic of death or depression, or Sara Teasdale's "The Long Hill," in which the climb up the hill symbolizes life and the brambles are symbolic of life's adversities. Sidelight: Symbols can be subject to a diversity of connotations, so both the poet and the reader must exercise sensible discretion to avoid misinterpretation. (See also Allusion, Analogy ) (Compare Allegory, Metaphor, Simile, Synecdoche ) SYMBOLISM A late 19th century movement reacting against realism. Influenced by the connections between music and poetry, it sought to achieve the effects of images and metaphors to symbolize the basic idea or emotion of each poem. SYMPLOCE (sim-PLOH-see or sim-PLAW-see) The repetition of a word or expression at the beginnings plus the repetition of a word or expression at the ends of successive phrases, i.e., a combination of both anaphora and epistrophe . SYNAERESIS or SYNERESIS (sin-EHR-uh-sus) A type of elision in which two contiguous vowels within a word which are normally pronounced as two syllables, as in seestare pronounced as one syllable instead. SYNALOEPHA or SYNALEPHA (sin-uh-LEE-fuh) A type of elision in which university of swabi swabi vowel at the end of one word is coalesced with one beginning the next word, as "th' embattled plain." SYNCOPATION (sin-koh-PAY-shun) In the quantitive verse of classical poetry, the suppression of one syllable in a metrical pattern, with its time value either replaced by a pause (like a musician's "rest") or by the additional lengthening of an adjoining long syllable. SYNCOPE (SIN-koh-pee) A type of elision in which a word is contracted by removing one or more letters or syllables from the middle, as ne'er for never, or fo'c'sle for forecastle. SYNECDOCHE (suh-NEK-duh-kee) A figure of speech in which a part of something stands for the whole or the whole for a part, as wheels for automobile or society for high society. Sidelight: Synecdoche is so similar in meaning to metonymy that the latter term is often used for both. (Compare Metaphor, Simile, Symbol ) SYNESTHESIA or SYNAESTHESIA (sin-uss-THEE-zhee-uh) The perception or description of one kind of sense impression in words normally used to describe a different sense, like a "loud aroma" or a "velvety smile." It can be very effective for creating vivid imagery. SYNESTHETIC METAPHOR A metaphor that suggests a similarity between experiences in different senses, as "a gourmet of country music." SYNONYM One of two or more words that have the same or nearly identical meanings. SYNTAX The way in which linguistic elements (words and phrases) are arranged to form grammatical structure. Sidelight: Poetic syntax often departs from conventional use, employing devices such as hyperbatons and ploces, among others. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ True ease in writing bond university mailing address from art, not chance, As those move easiest who have learn'd to dance, 'T is not enough no harshness gives offence,-- The sound must seem an echo to the sense. You write with ease to show your breeding, But easy writing's curst hard reading. ---Richard Brinsley Sheridan. TAIL RHYME Also called caudate rhyme, a verse form in which rhyming lines, usually a couplet or triplet, are followed by a tail, a university of louisville graduate programs of shorter length with a different rhyme; in a tail-rhyme stanza, the tails rhyme with each other, as in Michael Drayton's "Nymphidia" or Sir John Suckling's "A Ballad Upon a Wedding." TANKA (TAHNG-kuh) The classic form of Japanese poetry with five unrhymed lines of five, seven, five, seven, and seven syllables to produce a concentrated essence of a single event, image or mood. TAUTOLOGY The unnecessary and excessive repetition of the same idea in different words in the same sentence, as "the room was completely dark and had no illumination," or "a breeze greeted the dusk and nightfall was heralded by a gentle wind." TENSION The artistically satisfying equilibrium of opposing forces in a poem, usually referring to the use of language and imagery, but often applied to other elements, such as dramatic structure, rhythmic patterns, and sometimes to the aesthetic value of the poem as a whole. TENSON (TEN-suhn) or TENZON A medieval competition in verse on the subject of love or gallantry before a tribunal between rival troubadours ; also, a subdivision of a chanson composed by one of the competitors. TERCET A unit or group of three lines of verse which are rhymed together or have a rhyme scheme that interlaces with an adjoining tercet. Sidelight: The sestet, or second part of a Petrarchan sonnet, often consists of two tercets. Sidelight: A tercet is used as an envoi in a sestina. (See also Terza Rima ) TERNARY METER A meter consisting of three syllables per foot, as in dactylic or anapestic meters. They are also referred to as triple meters. Sidelight: Because the cadence of ternary meters can provide an effect quite different from that of when is american university spring break 2018 meters, they are often considered for a different range of subjects, especially those of a frolicsome or humorous nature. (Compare Binary Meter ) TERZA RIMA (tert-suh REE-muh) A verse form consisting of tercets, usually in iambic pentameter in English poetry, with a chain bond university mailing address interlocking rhyme scheme, as: aba, bcb, cdc, etc. The pattern concludes with a separate line added at the end of the poem (or each part) rhyming with the second line of the preceding tercet or with a rhyming couplet, as in Shelley's "Ode to the West Wind." Sidelight: The rhyme sound which carries from the middle line of each tercet to the opening line of the next tercet provides a strong sense of forward movement to the terza rima. TETRABRACH (TET-ruh-brak) See Proceleusmatic. TETRAMETER (teh-TRAM-uh-tur) A line of verse consisting of four metrical feet, as in William Blake's "Tyger! Tyger!," or Byron's "The Bride of Abydos." TEXTURE The "feel" of a poem that comes from the interweaving of technical elements, diction, tone, syntax, patterns of sound and meaning, i.e., all business plan for herbal products apart and independent of its structure. In other words, that which would remain if it were to be rendered in prose. THEME The central idea, topic, or didactic quality of a work. Sidelight: Although theme is often used interchangeably with motifit is preferable to recognize the difference between the two terms. (See also Burden ) (Compare Content, Diction, Form, Persona, Style, Texture, Tone ) THESIS The unaccented part of a poetic foot; also, the first part of an antithetical figure of speech. Sidelight: In musical terminology, the thesis is the downbeat, the accented part of a measure; due to an early confusion which was later recognized but never fordham university athletics division, the meaning of the term is the opposite when used in reference to the poetic foot. (Contrast Arsis ) TMESIS (tuh-MEE-sus) The division of a compound word into two parts, with one or more words between, as what place soever for whatsoever . TONE The poet's or persona's attitude in style or expression toward the subject, e.g., loving, ironic, bitter, pitying, fanciful, solemn, etc. Tone can also refer to the overall mood of the poem itself, in the sense of a pervading atmosphere intended to influence the readers' emotional response and foster expectations of the conclusion. Sidelight: Another use of tone is in reference to pitch or to the demeanor of a speaker as interpreted through inflections of the voice; in poetry, this is conveyed through the use of connotation, diction, figures of speech, rhythm and other elements of poetic construction. (Compare Content, Form, Motif, Style, Texture ) TOPOS (TOH-pohs) pl. TOPOI (TOH-poy) From the Greek for "place" (short for "commonplace"), a literary passage or expression which becomes a conventional theme in subsequent literature. Although more commonly used in some literary genres than others, the term refers to content rather than form. Sidelight: Standardized topics such as the poet's invocation if the Muse or of a dear departed "having gone to a better world" are examples of topoi, as well as are many metaphors. (Compare Motif ) TRAGEDY A medieval narrative poem or tale typically describing the downfall of a great person; a drama, usually in verse, portraying a conflict between a universal garage door opener app protagonist and a superior force such as destiny, culminating in death or disaster. TRIBRACH (TRY-brak) In classical poetry, a metrical foot of three short syllables. TRIMETER (TRY-muh-tur) A line of verse consisting of three metrical feet or three dipodies. Sidelight: Many poems are written entirely in trimeter, as William Cowper's "Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk," but frequently poems brigham young university archives longer line patterns are varied by the interposition of occasional trimeter lines, such as John Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale." (See Meter ) TRIOLET (TRY-uh-lut) A poem or stanza of eight lines in which the first line is repeated as the fourth and seventh lines, and the second line as the eighth, with a rhyme scheme of ABaAabABas in Adelaide Crapsey's "Song." Sidelight: The capital letters in the rhyme scheme indicate the repetition of identical lines. (Compare Rondeau, Rondel, Rondelet, Roundel, Villanelle ) TRIPLE RHYME A rhyme in which three final syllables of words have the same sound, as in glorious and victorious. Sidelight: Triple rhymes and disyllabic rhymes are used most frequently in humorous verse. (See also Mosaic Rhyme ) TRISYLLABLE A my favourite animal essay in marathi of three syllables. TROCHEE (TROH-kee), TROCHAIC (troh-KAY-ick) A metrical foot with a long or accented syllable followed by a short or unaccented syllable, as in ON-ly or TO-talor the opening line of Poe's "The Raven:" ONCE up- | ON a | MID -night | DREAR -y, | WHILE I | PON -dered, | WEAK and | WEAR -y, Sidelight: In English poetry, trochaic verse in long poems is infrequent since it can produce a monotonous effect, but this problem is avoided in short poems such as William Blake's "The Lamb," and "Tyger! Tyger!" Sidelight: In a trochaic line of verse, the last syllable is often omitted to end the line with an accented syllable. A line thus shortened is termed catalectic. (See also Meter, Rhythm ) TROPE The intentional use of a word or expression figuratively, i.e., used in a different sense from its original significance in order to give vividness or emphasis to an idea. Some important types of trope are: antonomasia, irony, metaphor, metonymy and synecdoche. Sidelight: Strictly speaking, a trope is the figurative use of a word or expressionwhile figure of speech refers to a phrase or sentence used in a figurative sense. The two terms, however, are often confused and flip flap book report interchangeably. (See also Imagery ) TROUBADOUR One of a class of Occitan lyric poets and poet-musicians, often of knightly rank, who flourished from the 11th through the 13th centuries in Southern France and neighboring areas of Italy and Spain, and who wrote of courtly love. Sidelight: Female troubadours were called trobairitz. (See Tenson ) (See also Improvisatore, Jongleur, Meistersingers, Minnesingers, Minstrel, Scop, Trouvere ) (Compare Bard, Metrist, Sonneteer, Wordsmith ) TROUVERE (troo-VEHR) One of a school of poets of northern France who flourished from the 11th to 14th centuries and who composed mostly narrative works such as chansons de geste and fabliaux . TRUE RHYME See Perfect Rhyme A B C D E F G H I J K Write essay on unemployment M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ As soon Seek roses in December, ice in June, Hope constancy in wind, or corn in chaff, Believe a woman or an epitaph, Or any other thing that's false, before You trust in critics. Any nose May ravage with impunity a rose. ---Robert Browning U-V UBI SUNT (OO-bee SOONT) A literary motif dealing with the transitory nature of things, like life, beauty, youth, etc. Sidelight: The ubi sunt motif was popular in medieval poetry, such as Villon's "Des Dames du Temps Jadis" VERSE A line of writing arranged in a metrical pattern, i.e., a line of poetry. Also, a piece of poetry or a particular form of poetry such as free verse, blank verseetc., or the art or work of a poet. Sidelight: The popular use of the word verse for a stanza or associated group of metrical biography of dr sanduk ruit is not in accordance with the best usage. A stanza is a group of verses. (See also Stich ) VERSE PARAGRAPH A line grouping of varying length, as distinct from stanzas of equal length. It is the usual division in blank verse. Sidelight: While verse paragraphs are seldom used in rhymed verse, Lycidas, by John Milton, is a noteworthy exception. VERSET (VUHR-sut, vuhr-SET) A short verse, especially one from a sacred book. VERSICLE A little verse; also, a short passage said or sung by a leader in public worship and followed by a response from the people. VERSIFICATION The art of writing verses, especially with regard to meter and rhythm. The term versification can also refer to a particular metrical structure or style or to a version in verse of something originally written in prose. Sidelight: Edgar Allan Poe's essay, "The Philosophy of Composition," describes the conception, construction, and versification of his poem, "The Raven." Sidelight: Classical versification was based on quantity, with the words arranged to form a systematic succession of long and short syllables, but this began to decline under the Roman Empire; the Romance Languages, being accentual in character, gave rise to accentual verse, which stressed certain syllables instead of giving time quantities to them. The classical names of the metrical feet are commonly applied to modern poetic meter, an accented syllable being equivalent to a long syllable and an unaccented syllable equivalent to a short syllable. VERSIFIER A writer of verse, often applied to a writer of light or inferior verse. VILLANELLE A poem in a fixed form, consisting of five 3-line stanzas followed by a quatrain master of education englisch having only two rhymes. In the stanzas following the first stanza, the first and third lines of the first stanza are repeated alternately as refrains. They are the final two lines of the concluding quatrain. Sidelight: The villanelle gives a pleasant impression of simple spontaneity, as in Edwin Arlington Robinson's "The House on the Hill." (Compare Rondeau, Rondel, Rondelet Triolet ) VIRELAY (VIHR-uh-lay) An ancient French verse form consisting of stanzas of indeterminate length and number, with alternating long and short lines and an interlaced rhyme scheme, as abab bcbc cdcd dada. Sidelight: Virelay is the Anglicized spelling of the French virelaia variation of the lai. VISUAL POETRY Poetry arranged in such a manner that its visual appearance has an elevated significance of its own, thus achieving an equivalence (or possibly even more) between the sight and sound of the poem. Sidelight: While the term, visual poetry, is generally applied to the definition above, most poets consciously strive to influence the visual impact of their poems by their selection of line lengths, stanzaic structures, indentations, white space, punctuation, capitalization, and type styles. In traditional verse, though, these aspects are subordinate to the written text. (See also Concrete Poetry, Pattern Poetry, Sight Rhyme ) VOLTA ( VAWL-tuh) The place at which a distinct turn of thought occurs. The term is most commonly used for the characteristic transition point in a sonnet, as between the octave and sestet of a Luxure education of married women marc dorcel 2019 sonnet. VOWEL RHYME See Assonance A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ For dear to gods and university of queensland to brisbane airport is sacred song. Self-taught I sing, by Heaven, and Heaven alone, The genuine seeds of poesy are sown. O gracious God! how far have we Profan'd thy heavenly gift of poesy! WELL-VERSED A state of familiarity with poetics accomplished by reading this Glossary from A becedarian to Z eugma. Sidelight: With the author's apologies, this is the only punning entry. WHIMSY or Educação fisica bacharelado ou licenciatura qual a diferença pdf A fanciful or fantastic creation in writing or art. WORDSMITH Amritsar dussehra tragedy report person institute of islamic education dewsbury works with words; a skillful writer. WRENCHED ACCENT A forced change in the normal university of miami uonline of a word syllable(s) to make the word conform to the prevailing metrical pattern. While it may result from faulty versification, it was conventional in the folk ballad and is sometimes used deliberately how to write an incident report in a nursing home comic effects. The poetry of earth is never dead. Poetry is the record of the best and happiest moments of the best and happiest minds. ---Percy Bysshe Shelley. XYZ ZEUGMA (ZOOG-muh) A figure of speech in which a single word, usually a verb or adjective, is used in the same grammatical and semantic relationship with two or more other words, as in "my father wept for woe while I for joy," or Pope's: the top universities in switzerland for computer science fact is that would we but permit ourselves to look into our own souls we should immediately there discover that under the sun there neither exists nor can exist any work more thoroughly dignified, more top quality education in the world noble, than this very poem, university of maryland application requirements poem per se, this poem which is a poem st john the baptist university malawi nothing more, this poem written solely for the poem's sake. ---"The Poetic Principle," Edgar Allan Poe. Poetry is rhythmical, imaginative language expressing the invention, taste, thought, passion, and insight of the human soul. ---Edmund Clarence Stedman. Glossary of Poetic Terms from BOB'S BYWAY Copyright © 1996 - 2018, by Robert G. Shubinski.