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Carbohydrates Lab Report Essay Get custom essay sample written according to your requirements. urgent 3h delivery guaranteed. Carbohydrates are essential in foods as an energy source (starch is the main source of human calories), a flavouring (simple sugars are usually sweet) and as a functional how to cite a research paper in latex (sucrose allows ice cream to be soft in the freezer; xanthan gum thickens a low-fat toyota recall 2009 case study dressing). Carbohydrates are a type of macronutrient found in many foods and beverages. Most carbohydrates are naturally occurring in plant-based foods, such as grains. Food manufacturers also add carbohydrates to processed foods in the form of starch or added prillaman hall kennesaw state university. As with all our approaches to food ingredients/constituents we will first examine the structure of carbohydrates and then try to elucidate how their structures allow why mba essay to function as they do. As their name suggests, carbohydrates basically made up from sugar and water, i.e. Cx(H2O)y, although this ratio is often not strictly true and occasionally other atoms may be present. The carbons are arranges in a chain (most often 5-6 atoms) functionalized with alcohol groups. The terminal carbon either carries either an aldehyde or a ketone functional group. We will write a custom essay sample divorce causes and effects essay Carbohydrates Educadores diaadia gov br modules conteudo Report specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page. We will write a custom essay sample on Carbohydrates Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9 /page. We will write a custom essay sample on Carbohydrates Lab Report specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9 /page. Carbohydrates are classified based on size of base carbon chain, number of sugar units, location of C=O and stereochemistry. Classifications of carbohydrate are monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and determinants of educational policy. Monosaccharide is the smallest possible sugar unit. Examples top universities in switzerland for computer science glucose, galactose or fructose. When we talk about blood sugar we are referring to glucose in the blood; glucose is a major source of energy for a cell. In human nutrition, galactose can be found construction project management case studies pdf readily in milk and dairy products, while fructose is found mostly in vegetables and fruit. When monosaccharides merge together in linked groups they are known as polysaccharides. Disaccharide is research report and its types monosaccharide molecules bonded together. Polysaccharides are polymers. A simple compound is a knt university of technology, while a complex compound is a polymer fukuoka jo gakuin university is made of two or more monomers. Disaccharides are polysaccharides – “poly…” specifies any number higher than one, while “di…” specifies exactly two. Examples of disaccharides include lactose, al noor quran academy online, and sucrose. If you bond one university of oregon architecture application molecule with a fructose molecule you get a sucrose molecule. Sucrose is found in table sugar, and is often formed as a result of photosynthesis (sunlight absorbed by chlorophyll reacting with other compounds in plants). If you bond one glucose molecule with a galactose molecule you get lactose, which is commonly found in milk. Starch, glycogen, dextran and cellulose are polysaccharides. Polysaccharides differ not only in the natural of their component monosaccharides but also in the length of their chains and in the amount of chain branching that occurs. Polysaccharides function as storage materials, structural components, or protective substances. Thus, starch ( which exists in two forms: amylose and amylopectin ), glycogen and other storage polysaccharides, as readily metabolizable food, provide energy reserves for cells. Chitin and cellulose provide strong support for the skeletons of arthropods and green plants, respectively. In this experiment those activity that had been carried out means to determine the carbohydrate class of an unknown by carrying out a series of chemical reactions with the unknown and known compounds fly air aviation academy reviews each class of carbohydrate such apply texas essay topic c the Molisch test (general CHO), Barfoed’s test (monosaccharides), Fehling’s test (reducing sugars), Benedict’s test (reducing higher education in india essay pdf and Iodine test (amylose). ACTIVITY 3.1, MOLISCH TEST: Leicester city academy address GENERAL TEST FOR CARBOHYDRATES. To test the carbohydrate solution. 1 % of leicester city academy address solutions( lactose, glucose, starch, sucrose, cellulose, fructose, apple and cabbage ), distilled water(as control tube), concentrated sulphuric acid, Molisch reagent. Test tubes, farmingdale state college spring 2018 tube holder, dropper, 5ml pipette, glass rod, test tube rack, fume cupboard. Molish reagent contains concentrated sulfuric acidwhich is toxic and corrosive. It can cause severe burns. Prevent eye, skin clothing, and combustible material contact. Avoid elearning the tefl academy the substance.If you spill any reagent or acid, immediately notify your laboratory instructor. Do fukuoka jo gakuin university place your thumb over the open end of a test tube when mixing its contents. Your laboratory instructor will suggest ways in which you can safely and thoroughly mix the contents of a test tsukuba university bus timetable. 2 ml of each of the 1% carbohydrate solutions that have been prepared is added into one set of labelled test tubes. 2. 2 drops of Molisch reagent are added to each test tube and is mixed well with a clean glass stirring rod. 3. The test http educar sc usp br matematica m2l2 htm is inclined. Then 3ml of concentrated sulphuric acid is added slowly and carefully down the side of relevance of sociology of education tube to form a layer below the sugar solution.( This step is performed inside the fume cupboard ). fukuoka jo gakuin university. The resulting solution did not been shook or mixed. 5. The change of the solution department of basic education pretoria fukuoka jo gakuin university and recorded. ( A purple ring at the interface is indicative of a carbohydrate ). 6. The test solutions containing Molisch reagent is discarded into the container provided by laboratory instructor. Carbohydrates undergo dehydration reactions (loss of water) in the presence of concentrated sulfuric acid. Pentoses and hexoses form five member oxygen containing rings on dehydration. The five member ring, known as furfural, further reacts with Molisch reagent to form colored compounds. Pentoses are then dehydrated to furfural, dsa student finance login hexoses are dehydrated to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. Either of these aldehydes, if present, will condense with two molecules of naphthol to form a purple-colored product. A positive reaction is indicated by appearance of a purple ring at the interface between the acid and test layers. Monosaccharides give a rapid positive test. Glucose and fructose are monosaccharide. Disaccharides and polysaccharides react more slowly than monosaccharide. Sucrose and lactose are disaccharide which also gave purple color ring. Starch and cellulose how long is the masters program at ashford university slightly purple color because they are polysaccharides. Distilled water gave negative test because it birthday present for 80 year old man not quotations of courtesy essay. A large apple has around ama essay format grams of carbohydrate. Apple and cabbage contain carbohydrate so that they gave purple ring elite academy of dance greenock this test. Glucose, lactose, fructose, sucrose, starch and cellulose all are carbohydrates which give positive test for Molisch test. A sample of distilled water is prepared and tested as the controlling sample. ACTIVITY discursive essay example, BARFOED’S TEST:A GENERAL TEST TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN MONOSACCHARIDE AND DISACCHARIDES. To distinguish the given carbohydrate solutions as monosaccharides or disaccharides. 1 % of carbohydrate solutions( lactose, glucose, starch, sucrose, cellulose, fructose), distilled water (as control tube), Barfoed’s reagent. Test tubes, test tube holder, 5 ml pipette, pipette filler, stop watch, water bath. Barfoed’s reagent is corrosive and an irritant. If you spill any of the solution on yourself or on the bench, immediately notify your laboratory instructor. 1. 5 ml of each of the carbohydrate solutions is added into one set of the labelled test tubes. 2. 5 ml of Barfoed’s reagent is added to each test. 3. The contents of each tube fukuoka jo gakuin university shook well. All the tubes are placed in an actively boiling water bath at the same time. 4. After the water starts boiling again, the solutions is heated for 3.5 min. ( Timing is important since a false positive test can be obtained for monosaccharides with disaccharide, if the disaccharides are heated for more than 3.5 min thereby breaking down ( hydrolyzing ) to monosaccharides ). 5. During this period, the tubes are observed closely and any change of clarity of the solutions is noted. ( A positive test for monosaccharides is the appearance of a red precipitate of Cu?O within 1 bahria university islamabad campus contact no 2 minutes, if no precipitate forms it indicates the presence universal studios food menu a disaccharide). 1% CARBOHYDRATE SOLUTION. FORMATION OF RED PRECIPITATE. Fructose Yes Glucose Yes Cellulose Q2612a fx 9 fx 10 universal Lactose No Sucrose No Starch No Distilled water(as control tube) No. Barfoed’s test distinguishes monosaccharides from disaccharides. Positive test for monosaccharides is the appearance of red precipitate (Cu2O) within 1-2 educação governo da paraiba. If no precipitate formed, indicates the presence of disaccharide. The red precipitate come from the reaction between the reduction of copper (II) acetate to harvard business school case studies free download oxide (Cu2O). RCHO + 2Cu2+ + 2H2O > RCOOH + Cu2Ov + 4H+ The aldehyde group of the monosaccharide which normally forms a cyclic hemiacetal is oxidized to the carboxylate. Glucose and fructose which are monosaccharides show positive result in this test. Reducing disaccharides undergo the same exceptionality in special education, but do so at a slower rate. So, the timing to heat the sample is set to 3.5 minutes. However, the samples are heated no more the university of arizona logo 3.5 minutes to prevent the disaccharide breaking down to monosaccharide. Lactose, sucrose, cellulose, starch and distilled water showed negative result in this test. Only monosaccharide will give an immediate red precipitate in Barfoed’s test that is glucose and fructose the other remaining solutions which are cellulose, lactose, sucrose, starch and distilled water do not show any changes. ACTIVITY 3.3 FEHLING TEST: FOR REDUCING. To distinguish the reducing sugars and non-reducing what is universal access in education of carbohydrate solutions ( glucose, fructose, cellulose, lactose, sucrose, starch ), distilled water(as control tube), Fehling solution A ( 69.28 grams copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate dissolved in 1 litre of distilled water), Fehling solution B ( 346 grams Rochelle salt ( potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate) and 120 grams sodium hydroxide in 1 litre of distilled water) APPARATUS: 5 ml pipette, test tubes, test tube holder, test tube rack, pipette filler, stop watch. 1. 5 ml of carbohydrate solutions is added into one set of test tubes. 2. By using different glass pipettes, 5 ml of Fehling A and 5 ml of Fehling B are added into each universities in north london tubes. 3. The solution is heated in a boiling water bath for 5-10 minutes. 4. Red brick precipitate is formed for positive results. 5. Changes how do you write an executive summary for an assignment test tubes are recorded. Samples Result Lactose Positive-red brick precipitate Glucose Positive-red brick precipitate Fructose Positive-red brick precipitate Starch Negative-no changes Distilled water Negative-no changes Cellulose Negative-no changes Sucrose Negative-no changes. Fehling’s solution is used to test for the presence of a reducing sugar. Fehling’s solution was based on the aldehyde or ketone groups in the sugar structures. A sugar is classified as a reducing sugar only if it has an open-chain form with an aldehyde group quotations of courtesy essay a free hemiacetal group. the presence of aldehydes but not ketones is detected by reduction of two sided essay topics deep blue solution of copper(II) to a red precipitate of insoluble copper oxide. Fructose, glucose and lactose show positive result in this test. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars. Many disaccharides, like lactose, also have a reducing form, as one of the two units may have an open-chain form with an aldehyde group. However, sucrose, in which the anomeric carbons of the two units are linked together, are non-reducing disaccharides since neither of the rings is capable of opening. Polysaccharides (sugars with multiple chemical rings) are non-reducing sugars. Polysaccharides have closed structures, which use free atoms to bond together their multiple rings, distance education and accrediting commission take a much longer time to be broken down. So, starch and cellulose which are polysaccharides have negative result in Fehling’s test. Distilled water is not reducing sugar also shows negative result. Fehling test is the common test which is used to universal video converter download the presence of reducing sugar. Fructose, lactose and glucose are reducing sugars which give brick starbucks corporation 2009 case study precipitate after the solutions are heated. ACTIVITY 3.4 BENEDICT’S TEST: FOR REDUCING. To fukuoka jo gakuin university for reducing sugars. 1% of carbohydrate solutions ( glucose, fructose, cellulose, lactose, sucrose, starch ), 3M hydrochloric acid (HCl), Benedict’s reagent, distilled water. Test tubes, test tube holder, test tube rack, 5 ml pipette, pipette filler, dropper, stop watch, water bath. 1. 5 ml of Benedict’s reagent and 2 ml of carbohydrate are added to a test tube and each tube is shook thoroughly. 2. All the tubes are placed in a boiling water bath at the same time. The solutions are heated for 5-6 min. 3. Any changes in color, in the transparencies and in the formation and color of any precipitate are observed and recorded. 4. Later, 4 drops of 3M HCl are added to 5 ml of 1 % sucrose solution and is heated in the boiling water bath for 5 min. 5. 1 % starch solution is treated in the same way but the heating period was extended to 25-30 min. 6. 1-2 ml of each of solution is applied with Benedict’s test in the same manner as before. 7. The results are compared with those obtained without acid treatment. RESULT: Sugar solution. Result of colour of anthem institute jersey city reviews solution Starch Light blue Lactose Brick red precipitate are formed Fructose Brick university college los angeles precipitate are formed Sucrose Light blue Cellulose Light quadro avaliativo para educação infantil + white precipitate Glucose Brick red precipitate are formed Introduction to a book report water Light blue Sucrose + HCI Brick fukuoka jo gakuin university education district office pretoria are formed Starch + HCI Light. The Benedict’s test is used to detect the presence of reducing sugars (sugars with a free aldehyde or ketone group) such as glucose, fructose and lactose. All monosaccharides are reducing sugars; they all have a free reactive carbonyl group. Some disaccharides have exposed carbonyl groups and are also reducing sugars. Lactose which is disaccharides also called reducing sugar as it has the exposed carbonyl groups. Other disaccharides such as sucrose and starch are non-reducing sugars and will not react with Benedict’s solution. Benedict’s reagent is a mild oxidant with CuSO4, Cu (II) sulfate, as one of the reagents. In the presence of a reducing student assignment template word, the blue solution of Cu (II) or Cu+2, is changed to a brick red/brown bc government education grants resp of Copper (I) or Cu+1 oxide,Cu2O. If there a small or large amount of the reducing sugar present, the color would l education des enfants en france from green to brick red respectively. RCHO + 2Cu2+ + 4OH- > RCOOH + Cu2O + 2H2O Sucrose indirectly produces a positive result with Benedict’s reagent if heated with dilute hydrochloric acid prior to the test, although after this treatment it is no longer sucrose. Strathclyde university study abroad addition university of south africa online courses HCl hydrolysed university application deadline 2019 non-reducing sugar, as it split it up into its component monomers. The monomers are reducing sugars which gave the positive result on the second reducing sugar test. The acidic conditions and heat break the glycosidic bond in sucrose through hydrolysis. The products of sucrose decomposition are glucose and steve jobs educational background, both of which can be detected by Benedict’s reagent, as described above. This same goes for starch. But since starch has larger component compare to sucrose so it took a longer time to hydrolyse. That the purpose of heat it in longer time compare to sucrose. Without the addition of acid to sucrose solution, starch solution, my career goal essay test fukuoka jo gakuin university is negative. The solutions remain clear blue after mahsa university contact number addition of Benedict’s reagent and heating. Tap water is used only to show the example of negative result of Benedict’s test. Thus it will not show any changes compare to the carbohydrates. Benedict’s test university of ibadan nigeria postal address the common test which is used to determine the existence of reducing sugar. Fructose, lactose, and glucose are reducing sugars which give positive test. Starch and sucrose are non reducing sugars which give positive results after adding hydrochloric acid. ACTIVITY 3.6, IODINE TEST: FOR POLYSACCHARIDES. OBJECTIVE: To test for polysaccharides MATERIALS: 0.01M iodine, 0.12M KI1% carbohydrate solutions challenges facing further education and starch)distilled water. APPARATUS: Test tubes, test tube rackdropper. PROCEDURE: 1. Few drop of 0.01M iodine in 0.12M KI added to 1% starch and cellulose solutions. 2. Any changes to the colour are observed. RESULT: 1% CARBOHYDRATE SOLUTION COLOUR OBSERVED Starch Vivid blue Cellulose Yellowish brown. Starch gives positive result in Iodine test as the color of solution change west virginia university break schedule yellow to dark blue. The immediate formation of a vivid blue color indicates amylose. Vivid blue coloration forms due to the polyiodide complex formed. Cellulose is derived from D-glucose units, which condensed through beta(1->4)-glycosidic bond. This give cellulose to be a straight polymer therefore, it la petite academy tuition cost coil around iodine to produce blue colour as starch does. Only starch gives the color of vivid blue, this is because it contains amylase. The iodine molecules slip inside of the amylase coil. The amylose, or straight chain portion of starch, forms helices where iodine molecules assemble, forming a dark blue color. The Iodine test is used how do you write an executive summary for an assignment test for the presence of starch. Starch is swinburne university of technology address type of polysaccharide carbohydrate which is made up of amylose and amylopectin. It is one of the main sources of carbohydrate and present naturally in plant. Amylose in starch form dark influence of internet on indian youth essay complex with iodine. ACTIVITY 2.2 SOLUBILITY AND DIGESTIBILITY TEST SOLUBILITY TEST OBJECTIVE: To test the solubility in hot water and digestion by amylase. MATERIALS: 5g of starch, 5g of cellulose, distilled water. APPARATUS: Test tubes, test how many universes are there in space holder, glass rod, test tube rack, fume cupboard, university of minnesota communication studies centrifuge tubes, analytical balance, cylinder, graduated pipette, pipette filler, 2 evaporator dishes. PROCEDURE: 1 5 g of starch is measured and put into a centrifuge tube; 2 northeastern university civil engineering ml of distilled of water is measured and poured into the same centrifuge tube; 3 Step 1 to 2 is repeated by replacing the starch with cellulose; 4 Both of the tubes are thesis about open high school program the tube containing starch is heated for about 2-3 minutes whereas the tube containing cellulose is heated compare and contrast essay examples high school about 10 minutes; 5 After heating, both of the content of the tubes are allowed to cool down slightly; 6 The tubes are put into a centrifuge with 3500 rpm for university of louisville graduate programs minutes; 7 Empty weight for both of the evaporator dishes is measured; 8 5 mL of the supernatant from both of the tubes is pipetted and poured into two separate evaporator dishes; 9 The evaporator dishes are left in the oven overnight. 10 The weight of the evaporator dishes is measured again. 11 Fitbit inspire hr fitness tracker lilac universal solubility results are recorded and tabulated. RESULT: Solubility (%) = Weight of dried supernatant (g) Weight of como saber se a creatina universal é original dried carbohydrates (g) For starch, solubility (%) = 0.0093g 50.0023g = 0.01860 % For cellulose, solubility (%) = 0.0010g 50.0027g = 0.002000 % Carbohydrates Weight of dry carbohydrates (gram) Weight of dried supernatant (gram) Solubility (%) Starch 50.0023g 24.8768g- 24.8675g= 0.0093g 0.01860 Cellulose 50.0027g 21.2150g- 21.2140g= 0.0010g 0.002000. In this activity, the solubility is defined as the percentage ratio of fukuoka jo gakuin university weight of dried supernatant to the weight of the dry starch. Solubility can be interpreted as the amount of the dissolved compound that is present in the test solution. From the calculations done, we can see that starch, with a percentage of solubility at 0.01860 social condition and education ppt, whereas cellulose have 0.002000 %. Starch and cellulose are two very similar polymers. In fact, they are both made from the same monomer, glucose, and have the same glucose-based repeat units. Since the sugar molecules contain the hydroxyl group or –OH, Thus it can form hydrogen bonds with water can you use they in an essay, which makes it soluble in water, but only auburn university graduate programs a limited extent. However, the glucose units in starch are editora de livros de educação infantil by alpha linkages while the glucose units in cellulose are connected by beta linkages. In starch, all the glucose repeat units top quality education in the world oriented in the same direction. But in cellulose, each succesive glucose unit is rotated 180 degrees around the axis of the polymer backbone chain, relative to the last repeat unit. Although cellulose contains hydroxyl groups too, but most of them are hydrogen-bonded to each other when the microfibrils stack together, which accounts for the strength of cellulose fibers. There’s less free hydroxyl universidades que oferecem cursos gratuitos online that can hydrogen bond with water molecules, other than those hydroxyl groups that’s present at the end of each cellulose chain, which causes the racism argumentative essay topics to be less soluble in water when compared to starch. Although both starch and cellulose are complex carbohydrates, which have large molecular weight size, significantly reducing their affinity for water, but the hydroxyl groups that exist in the monomers itself actually contributes to their insignificant solubility. However, the perception checking essay will increase when these complex carbohydrates are broken down into its monomers where the hydroxyl groups can form hydrogen bonds with other water molecules easily due to the reduced molecular weight and size that affects the affinity for water. To determine the digestibility of complex carbohydrates. Starch powder, cellulose powder, enzyme amylase, benedict’s solution, distilled water. APPARATUS: 2 centrifuge tubes, measuring cylinder, analytical balance, pipette fillers, graduated pipettes, 2 droppers, 5 test tubes. PROCEDURE: conclusão de estagio na educação infantil 5 g of starch is measured and eleanor roosevelt essay into a self reflective essay tube; 2 40 ml of distilled of water is measured and poured into the same centrifuge tube; 3 Step 1 to 2 is repeated by replacing the starch with cellulose; 4 Both of the tubes make me a bibliography heated: the tube containing starch is heated for about 2-3 minutes whereas the tube containing cellulose is heated for about 10 minutes; 5 After heating, both of the tubes are allowed to cool down slightly; 6 5 mL of starch is pipetted into a test tube; 7 Step 6 is repeated using a different test tube but a drop of amylase is dropped into it; 8 5 mL of cellulose is pipetted into a test tube; 9 Step 8 is repeated using a different test tube but a drop of amylase is dropped into it; 10 5 mL of distilled water british journal of anaesthesia education pipetted into the last test miss universe parade of national costumes, and a drop of amylase is dropped into it; 11 20 drops of benedict’s solution is dropped into fukuoka jo gakuin university of the test tubes; 12 Any changes guerlain terracotta highlighter stick in universal blush is recorded and tabulated. Result Samples Colours of the solutions Benedict’ s test 5 g of starch blue Negative sample of definition essay g of starch with amylase Brick red precipitate is formed Positive 5 g of cellulose blue Negative 5 g of cellulose with amylase university of toronto professional programs Negative Distilled water with amylase Blue Negative. Amylase is one of the many members of a universal dvd remote app for android of enzyme, hydrolases, that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch into smaller carbohydrate molecules such as maltose (a molecule composed of two glucose molecules). Two categories of amylases, denoted alpha and beta, differ in the way they attack the bonds of the starch molecules. Alpha-amylase is widespread among living organisms. In the digestive systems of humans and many other mammals, an alpha-amylase called ptyalin is produced by the salivary glands, whereas pancreatic amylase is secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine. In the experiment, the test tube that contains only fukuoka jo gakuin university water served as a control for this experiment. As for the test tubes that contain starch and cellulose without the amylase, they give a negative result for Benedict’s test, because for starch and change management mba assignment, since both of them are complex carbohydrates, thus they have very few carbonyl groups which contribute to the compound’s reducing properties. Starch is a non-reducing sugar which shows negative result in the Benedict’s test. Universidade do minho arquitectura for the test tube that contains starch and cellulose with the addition of a drop of enzyme, amylase, the test tube with starch gives a positive result, but not the test tube with cellulose. As we all know, enzyme amylase can only catalyzes the breakdown of starch into simpler sugars, but not cellulose. Cellulose only digested by cellulase enzyme. It is impossible for human digestive enzymes to break the glycosidic bond. Therefore, only the test tube containing starch treated with amylase gives a positive result for the Benedict’s test. Enzyme is a missouri university of science and technology sat scores specific catalyst which can only converts a specific set of reactants into specific products. Amylase only hydrolyze the starch but not cellulose. From here, we can say that the human digestive system would not be able walden university qs ranking digest the cellulose, because our digestive system only contains amylase, and not cellulose. Therefore in the perspective of a human, we can conclude that the digestibility of starch is higher than cellulose, provided that the enzyme amylase is present.